Guide to four of the most exciting new adventure trips for 2008:
Tribal (部落的) India
Attractions: Myths and Mountains
Length: 17 days
Details: For the travelers who has already visited the best-known India sites, this new trip visits a relatively unexplored state in central India ruled by the Vindhyachal Range and known for its wildlife, waterfalls, ancient sites and tribal culture.
Departure Time(出发时间): Feb. 17
Information: 800-670-6984; myths.com
Across Patagonia: From the Andes to the Ocean
Attractions: Boundless Journeys
Length: 8 days
Details: The newest route across Patagonia starts high in the Argentine Andes and follows the Futaleufu River into Chile all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Travelers start by trekking along the river, changing to rafts before taking up kayaks for the final leg.
Departure Time: March 5
Information: 800-941-8010; boundless.com
Attractions: International Expeditions
Length: 18 days
Details: Remember the movie Ishtar? Now you, too, can spend days wandering in the desert, just like Warren Beatty and Dustin Hoffman. Designed for rugged travelers, the camping expedition crosses 1,500 miles of Niger’s Sahara in four-wheel-drive vehicles.
Departure Time: Nov. 17
Information: 800-633-4734; ietravel.com
Dalmatian Coast Biking
Length: 7 days
Details: The company’s first foray into Croatia follows scenic roadways across four islands between Dubrovnik and Split.
Departure Time: May 7
Information: 800-462-2848; backroads.com
1.The passage is mainly about _______.
A. suggestions on the adventure trips in America in 2008
B. the guide to several adventure trips around the world
C. the attractions in India
D. the prices of four most exciting adventure trips next year
2.A trip across Patagonia starts _______.
A. on Feb. 17 B. on March 5
C. on Nov. 17 D. in January
3.Which trip costs the least?
A. Tribal India. B. Crossing Patagonia.
C. Sahara. D. Dalmatian Coast Biking.
The Internet brings us many advantages.
With the Internet, people can send and receive e-mails. On the Internet, people can skim over news. Using the Telnet, the user anywhere on the Internet can log into any other machine on which he has an account. It is possible to use the FTP program to copy files from one machine on the Internet to another.
But the Internet also brings us troubles.
Internet use seems to cause a fall in psychological (心理的) health, according to research at Carnegie Mellon University. Even people who spent just a few hours a week on the Internet experienced more depression and loneliness than those who logged on less often, the two-year study showed. And it wasn’t that people who were already feeling bad spent more time on the Internet, but that using the Net actually seemed to cause the bad feelings.
Researchers are puzzling over the results, which were completely opposite to what they had expected. They expected that the Net would prove socially healthier than television, since the Net allows users to choose their information and to communicate with others.
The fact that Internet use reduces time used for family and friends may be the reason for the drop in health, researchers said. Faceless, bodiless “virtual” (虚拟的) communication may be less psychologically satisfying than actual conversations, and the relationships formed through it may not be so deep. Another possibility is that exposure to the wider world through the Net makes users less satisfied with their lives.
“But it’s important to remember this is not about the technology; it’s about how it is used,” said one of the researchers. “It really points to the need for considering social factors (因素) when you design new inventions.”
1.The writer mainly wants to tell us that _________.
A. the Internet can bring people many advantages
B. the Internet use may cause psychological problems
C. the Internet users are not satisfied with their lives
D. we shouldn’t use the Internet
2.Why are the researchers puzzling over the results?
A. Because the results were completely different from what they had thought.
B. Because the Net proved socially healthier than television.
C. Because the Internet users were all healthier.
D. Because the Internet users experienced less depression and loneliness.
3.What may be the reasons why the Internet use causes a fall in psychological health?
A. Internet use reduces time used for family and friends.
B. Virtual communication is less psychologically satisfying than actual conversations.
C. Exposure to the wider world through the Net makes users less satisfied with their lives.
D. All the above.
4.According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?
A. Users anywhere on the Internet can log into any other machine.
B. The two-year study showed that using the Net seemed to cause the bad feelings.
C. People who are already feeling bad spend much more time on the Internet.
D. Relationships formed through the Internet are usually deep.
5.What does the underlined part in the last paragraph mean?
A. What matters is not the technology but how it is used.
B. This passage is not about the technology but about how it is used.
C. We should remember to learn about the technology.
D. We should remember to learn how to use computers.
He knew his colors and shapes, he learned more than 100 English words, and with his own brand of one-liners he established (确立) himself in TV shows, scientific reports, and news articles as perhaps the world’s most famous talking bird.
But last week, Alex, an African parrot, died, obviously of natural causes, said Dr Irene Pepperberg, an expert at Brandeis University and Harvard who studied and worked with the parrot for most of its life and published reports of his progress in scientific journals. The parrot was 31.
Scientists have long debated whether any other species can develop the ability to learn human language. Alex’s language ability was, in some ways, more surprising than the efforts of those animals that have been taught, like Koko, the gorilla (猩猩) trained by Penny Patterson at the Gorilla Foundation in Woodside, or Washoe, another gorilla studied by R. Allen and Beatrice Gardner at the University of Nevada in the 1960s and 1970s.
When Dr Pepperberg, who was then a doctoral student in chemistry at Harvard, found Alex was good at remembering words in a pet store in 1977 and bought it, scientists had little expectation that birds could learn to communicate with humans. Most of the research had been done on pigeons, and was not promising.
But by using novel methods of teaching, Dr Pepperberg taught Alex to learn about 150 words, which he could put into categories. He could count small numbers and tell colors and shapes. “The work changed the way we think of bird brains,” said Diana Reiss, a psychologist at Hunter College who works with dolphins and elephants. “We used to look down upon those birds, but now we look at those brains — at least Alex’s — with some awe.”
1.Alex is very famous because ________.
A. it died of a strange disease
B. it lived longer than any other parrot
C. it hosted many famous TV shows
D. it has a special talent in learning human language
2.What was the direct reason why Dr Pepperberg bought Alex?
A. He found it was good at remembering words.
B. He liked its colors and shapes.
C. He wanted to do research on birds.
D. Diana Reiss asked him to do that.
3.What does the underlined word “novel” mean in the last paragraph?
A. Special. B. New.
C. Great. D. Unique.
4.According to the last paragraph, we can learn that ________.
A. people used to think dolphins were the cleverest
B. Alex’s ability of learning human language has changed some researchers’ ideas about birds
C. elephants are better at learning human language
D. birds’ great ability in learning human language has already been noticed before
5.What would be the best title for this passage?
A. Who are cleverer, birds or gorillas?
B. A famous talking bird died
C. Have you ever talked with a bird?
D. The keeper of a famous bird
A home computer not only helps children master the old ways of learning, but also opens up possibilities that simply aren’t available in traditional education. Some software, for example, allows kids to make decisions and see the results in different situations. The World Wide Web encourages young minds to move easily from link to link, topic to topic. The best software draws children into learning by making them curious — what if I click on this picture, drag this over here, visit that website?
Knowing how to use a computer also encourages a child’s confidence. Kids figure out quickly that computers are powerful, and mastering the machine makes them feel grown-up. In turn, feeling confident on a computer often translates to academic (学术的) confidence. Researchers have found that attitudes toward writing, for example, improve when students write on a computer.
Perhaps most importantly, computers can enrich family life. Forget the idea that computer kids are separated. Children like to use the computer with adults and other kids, asking questions and comparing results. “The Internet is a unique opportunity to bring resources home,” notes Susan Haugland, PhD, Cape Girardeau, Mo., author of Ｃｏｍｐｕｔｅｒｓ ａｎｄ Ｙｏｕｎｇ Ｃｈｉｌｄｒｅｎ： Ａ Ｗｏｒｌｄ ｏｆ Ｄｉｓｃｏｖｅｒｙ.
Although the benefits of computers are real, they have disadvantages, too. Kids can lose their way, wasting hours on mindless software or violent games. Just as parents have always helped children make good choices about everything from friends to food, books to TV, now we must make sure they get the best out of computers.
1.The passage is mainly talking about _____.
A. the disadvantages of children’s using computers
B. the advantages of children’s using computers
C. the development of computers
D. the fact using computers makes children lose their way
2.Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a home computer?
A. It provides new ways of learning.
B. It encourages children’s confidence.
C. It can enrich family life.
D. Kids can play violent games on it.
3.What effects do computers have on family life?
A. They reduce the connection between family members.
B. They destroy the relationship between parents and kids.
C. They provide more opportunities of communication.
D. They make all the family members study together.
4.According to the last paragraph, we can learn that we should _____.
A. let children use computers freely
B. forbid children to use computers in their spare time
C. permit children to use any software they like
D. help children make good use of the computers
My Grandpa has arthritis (关节炎), and it’s getting harder and harder for him to do certain things.
When I was a little girl, my grandpa would play this game with me. He would tell me to hold out my hand, and in it he would place a shiny silver quarter. Wow, I thought I had the world sitting in my hand. He would tell me that if I could keep it away from him, I could have it. I knew that I couldn’t keep it away from him, but I would always try. Then he would tell me that if I could get it away from him, then he would give it back to me.
I remember feeling so small compared with him, and I also remember feeling embarrassed because I knew there was no way that I could get that quarter from him. But I tried. I would climb down from my chair, with defeat weighing heavily on my back.
“Bug?” he’d say.
“Ya Grandpa?” I’d reply, trying to sound as sad as possible.
There in his outstretched hand would be my quarter. It always ended the same. He would always hand it over. I always knew that I would have to wait until the game was over to get my quarter, because he had so much pride and self-worth that he couldn’t lose to a 4-year-old girl. After I grew up, when we played the game again, I never wanted to defeat him. I just wanted to be with him. I loved to hear him tell me what I did wrong, and how to get it right the next time, and I loved the pride in his voice.
1.In which order did the following things happen during the game?
a. Grandpa placed a shining silver quarter in my hand.
b. Grandpa told me if I could get it away from him, I could keep it.
c. He gave the quarter over to me and I got it.
d. Grandpa told me if I could keep it away from him, I could keep it.
A. a d b c B. a b c d
C. a b d c D. a c d b
2.This passage is mainly about _______.
A. the writer’s grandpa’s serious arthritis
B. the writer’s deep feeling for her Grandpa
C. games between the grandpa and the writer
D. grandpa’s success in all games
3.Why didn’t the writer want to defeat her grandpa?
A. She couldn’t defeat her grandpa.
B. She liked to see his pride.
C. She didn’t want to shame her grandpa.
D. She was afraid that Grandpa wouldn’t play with her.
I am a android. My owner is an eight-year-old boy. 1.
His mother buys me from a store last month and 2.
gave me to him for a birthday present. He likes me 3.
very much, so I can do a lot of things. For example, 4.
I can tell him stories and helps him with his homework. 5.
When he feels alone, I play with him. However, 6.
there was a problem now. He has become lazy. 7.
He likes asking me questions instead thinking by himself. 8.
I’m really worried about that. I do think he should 9.
learn how to solve the problem on his own. Only in this way 10.
will he really master what he has learnt.
参考词汇：开阔视野broaden one’s horizons 暴力violence 色情porn 沉迷 get addicted to
When you go to St. Petersburg, the number of attractions can seem large. If you are short of time, or just want to make sure to hit the highlights, these are the top must-see sights in St, Petersburg.
● The Hermitage Museum
The Hermitage Museum is one of the most important sights to see for any visitor to St. Petersburg. There are lots of different paintings by the old masters in the Hermitage. Prepare to come face-to-face with classic Western artists.
● Kizhi Island
Kizhi Island is an open-air museum of wooden architecture from the Karelia Region of Russia. These impressive structures are made entirely without nails - the wood fits together with joints and grooves (沟槽）.
Peterhof is as beautiful as it is fun. You’ll be charged for admission, but go to Petethof when the fountains are working-during the day in the summer. They are shut off in winter evenings,
● The Church of Our Savior on the Spilt Blood
Love it or hale it, the Church of Our Savior on the Spilt Blood in St. Petersburg is an enthralling must-see sight. The beautiful look may make y our eyes brighten, and the painting inside the church will make you say “Wow!”
● The Bronze Horseman Statue
The so-called Bronze Horseman is a part of Russian culture and a symbol of St, Petersburg. Made famous by Alexander Pushkin, this statue of Peter the Great sitting on his horse can truly show Peter the Great’s influence on the Russian idea of greatness.
1.If you are interested in paintings, you'd better go to ______
A. Peterhof arid Kizhi Island
B. the Hernatage Museum and Peterhof
C. Kizhi Island and the Church of Our Savior on the Spilt Blood
D. the hermitage Museum and the Church of Our Savior on the Spilt Blood
2.We can learn from the passage that ______
A. visitors can visit Peterhof for free
B. the buildings of Kizhi Island are made of wood
C. the fountains in Peterhof can be seen all year round
D. the largest collection of Russian arts is in the Hermitage Museum
3.The main purpose of the passage is to ______
A. show the wonderful history of Russia
B. persuade artists to study St. Petersburg
C. recommend the famous buildings in Russia
D. introduce the must-see sights in St. Petersburg
Our planet is home to about seven billion people. Since the 1990s, population experts have predicted the number would grow to nine billion before it begins to slow down and possibly decrease.
But a new report predicts the world’s population is likely to increase to almost 11 billion by 2100. Based on the most modem statistical tools, the new report makes use of government records and considers expert predictions, including death rates, birthrates and international migration, or people moving across borders. The report says during the rest of this century, Africa’s population will grow from about 3.5 billion to 5.1 billion over the next 85 years.
John is director of the United Nations Population Division. He says that in the past, researchers thought population growth in Africa would be similar to that of other areas. They expected slower growth rates as birth control use became more widespread. But he says those ideas were wrong.
“The level of contraception use has continued to increase but slowly — more slowly than expected, and birthrate therefore has been falling less rapidly than expected, and the population therefore continues to grow somewhat more rapidly than we expected.
The new findings are based on a joint research project of the United Nations and the University of Washington,
The researchers believe the population of Asia will reach five billion by 2050. That is up from the current 4.4 billion. And then begin decline. The researchers also believe that North America, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean area will have a total population of below one billion.
John says the pressure of feeding the rising population is likely to be less than that might be expected.
“The relatively good news is that the world has been winning the race between population growth and food production. If you look back historically over the last 50 years, certainly for the world as a whole and for many, most individual countries and regions, the increase in food production has outpaced the increase of population.”
1.Which area will experience the largest increase in population at the end of the century？
A. Asia. B. Africa.
C. Europe. D. North America.
2.“Contraception use” in the fourth paragraph refers to ________.
A. a method of expert predictions
B. a way of avoiding growth in population
C. a joint research into the rising population
D. a potential technology for food production
3.Why is the pressure of feeding the rising population less than expected according to John?
A. Expert predictions are not exactly like what the facts happen.
B. Birthrates have always been falling less rapidly than we expected.
C. The population grows less rapidly than population experts expected.
D. The increase in food production has outpaced the increase of population,
4.What can be inferred from the passage?
A. The world’s population will increase constantly.
B. The population of Asia will rise by 5 billion by 2050.
C. John is optimistic about feeding the rising population,
D. Population growth in Africa was much slower than expected.
As Internet users become more dependent on the Internet to store information, are people remember less? If you know your computer will save information, why store it in your own personal memory, your brain? Experts are wondering if the Internet is changing what we remember and how.
In a recent study, Professor Betsy Sparrow conducted some experiments. She and her research team wanted to know the Internet is changing memory. In the first experiment, they gave people 40 unimportant facts to type into a computer. The first group of people understood that the computer would save the information. The second group understood that the computer would not save it. Later, the second group remembered the information better. People in the first group knew they could find the information again, so they did not try to remember it.
In another experiment, the researchers gave people facts to remember, and told them where to find the information an the Internet. The information was in a specific computer folder (文件夹). Surprisingly, people later remember the folder location (位置) better than the facts. When people use the Internet, they do not remember the information. Rather, they remember how to find it. This is called “transactive memory (交互记忆)”
According to Sparrow, we are not becoming people with poor memories as a result of the Internet. Instead, computer users are developing stronger transactive memories; that is, people are learning how to organize huge quantities of information so that they are able to access it at a later date. This doesn’t mean we are becoming either more or less intelligent, but there is no doubt that the way we use memory is changing.
1.The passage begins with two questions to ________.
A. introduce the main topic B. show the author’s altitude
C. describe how to use the Interne D. explain how to store information
2.What can we learn about the first experiment?
A. Sparrow’s team typed the information into a computer.
B. The two groups remembered the information equally well.
C. The first group did not try to remember the formation.
D. The second group did not understand the information.
3.In transactive memory, people ________.
A. keep the information in mind
B. change the quantity of information
C. organize information like a computer
D. remember how to find the information
4.What is the effect of the Internet according to Sparrow's research?
A. We are using memory differently.
B. We are becoming more intelligent.
C. We have poorer memories than before.
D. We need a better way to access information.