All over the world mothers and fathers teach their children manners. Other children may have manners that are not like yours. There are all kinds of manners.

Many years ago, children who had good manners were seen and not heard. They kept quiet if grown-ups were talking. Today, well-mannered children have more freedom.

Sometimes good manners in one place are bad manners in other places. Suppose you are a visitor in the land of Mongolia. Some friends ask you to eat with them. What kind of manners do they want you to have? They want you to give a loud “burp(打嗝)” after you finish eating. Burping would show that you like your food. In some countries, if you give a loud burp, you are told to say “Excuse me, please.” In many places people like to eat together. But in some parts of Polynesia it is bad manners to be seen eating at all. People show good manners by turning their backs on others while they eat. What are manners like in an East African town? The people try not to see you. They are being polite. You may see a friend. He may not see you at all. If you are polite, you will sit down beside him. You will wait until he finishes what he is doing. Then he will talk to you. Suppose you visit a friend in Arabia. You should walk behind the other tents until you come to his tent. If you pass in front of the other tents, you will be asked into each one. The people will ask you to eat with them. And it is bad manners if you say no.

Manners are different all over the world. But it is good to know that all manners begin in the same way. People need ways to show that they want to be friends.

1.How did polite children behave?

A. By looking into adults’ eyes while talking

B. By keeping silent while adults were talking

C. By slipping into the house without being heard

D. By not opening their mouths until spoken to

2.Which custom should we follow in order to look well-mannered?

A. Saying “Excuse me” on burping in Mongolia

B. Inviting guests to dinner together in Polynesia

C. Talking with a friend before he completes things in East Africa

D. Accepting an eating invitation in Arabia

3.What can we infer from the text?

A. Hear much, speak little

B. Love me, love my dog

C. When in Rome do as the Romans do

D. Do what you ought to and come what can

Lying alongside mountains of smelly garbage under the South American sun, Cateura is a long way from the conservatories of Prague or Vienna. Yet the township, which grew out of Paraguay's largest dump(垃圾场), is gaining a reputation as a hothouse for musical talent and for its youth orchestra(管弦乐队) that plays instruments made from garbage. "The world sends us garbage. We send back music," says Favio Chavez, leader of the "Recycled Orchestra," during a recent visit by the group to Los Angeles. Orchestra members, poor children from Cateura, play violins fashioned from oven trays and guitars made from dessert dishes. The orchestra provides the youngsters an outlet and an escape, a chance to go beyond the mess of their slum(贫民窟) through the music of Mozart, and even Sinatra. "In the beginning, it was difficult to play," says the l0-year-old violinist Celeste Fleitas." But Favio helped me learn over time. From Favio, I have learned to be more responsible and value the things I have."

The destination for more than 1,500 tons of waste each day, the community has no safe drinking water and little access to electricity or sanitation(卫生设施). Illiteracy is severe, and the children of the township often fall into drugs, violence and crimes.

Favio Chavez, a musical talent, came to Cateura as an environmental technician in 2006 and started a youth music school. He knew shop-bought instruments were beyond the means of villagers whose sheds are worth less than a violin, so he approached a carpenter to make some out of waste from the dump.

The orchestra caught the eye of Paraguayan filmmaker Alejandra Amarilla. She uploaded a short piece of the orchestra to YouTube in 2012, hoping to secure crowdfunding for what would become Landfill Harmonic, a documentary released across the United States this month and promoting the youngsters on a tour of the world's music halls later on.

1.What is the best title of the text?

A. Youngsters carry tunes from garbage to victory

B. A music talent hit the road to the world stage

C. A town for music fans

D. An orchestra on a global tour

2.What do we know about Cateura?

A. It has raised people's awareness of recycling trash

B. It has caught more attention through the orchestra

C. It recycles more than l,500 tons of rubbish per day

D. It provides its children with better schooling conditions

3.Why did Alejandra Amarilla upload a piece of the orchestra to YouTube?

A. To assist the youngsters with a world tour

B. To collect funding for a documentary

C. To organize carpenters to make instruments

D. To catch the eye of the Paraguay government

4.What can we learn from Favio Chavez?

A. To work in a team weighs more

B. To recycle things is to conserve things

C. To be creative is a quality of a leader

D. To own nothing is no excuse to do nothing

Choosing the right college for you is not so easy.You should have a general idea of what you want and don't want.The idea can guide you to find what fits your needs best.1.

Think about what major you want to study in college.If you know that,just look at colleges that have your major. 2.So think carefully about your major and interests before choosing one.

Where the college is located matters.Anyone who tells you the location isn't important is lying.3.If you look forward to working in the publishing industry,New York may be your best bet.If your parents want you to stay close to home,please don't consider anywhere that requires a plane ticket to get to.

Think about how much you can afford.Are your parents,paying for your education? If so,how much are they willing to spend?Do you have to contribute anything? Financial aid and scholarship exist,but don't count on anything. 4.These are all things to consider before you fall in love with a college.

Make sure you're going to spend time with the right people.The cool thing about college is that each different one attracts different kinds of people.For the first thing in your life,you get to choose where you get to spend your time and who you get to spend it with.5.Make sure that the people you're with for four years are your kind of people.

A.College is about learning what you love.

B.You'd better choose a major that is popular.

C.Go to the college with some people you like.

D.Are you willing to go into major debt over a school?

E.Remember,above all,it's the people that make the place.

F.If you don't like cold weather,stay away from northern schools.

G.These guidelines will help figure out what college you want to go to.

My parents owned a 500-acre farm in Montana when I was young. Life there was filled not just with fun and games but______as well. The lambing season was especially hard. Montana’s freezing spring weather kept my parents watching______mamas at all hours of the day and night______a newborn lamb.

It was during this time of new life that my favorite childhood memory______. One exceptionally______day, my mother spied a sheep trying to deliver her baby lamb and needed our______. My mother calmly held the sheep’s head and______me to get hold of the lamb’s protruding(伸出) legs.

I______and must have had a look of panic on my face. The little things were______not something I wanted to touch. But I______my courage and wrapped my fingers______them. I can still remember the______of the unexpectedly delicate legs. My heart beat in fear and excitement______I pulled with all my strength. The lamb was delivered!

I was no______to seeing farm animals being born, but to have a______in it was something I will cherish forever. I’m sure everyone got very______hearing me tell and retell my heroic story.

Looking back, I’m so glad that I didn’t______to get my hands dirty, If I had, the miraculous moment and the precious memory would have been______. I try to instill(逐渐灌输) that life______into my children. Sometimes you need to get your hands a little dirty to experience something______and pure.

1.A. pleasure B. danger C. dilemma D. hardship

2.A. pregnant B. working C. desperate D. sleeping

3.A. at the risk of B. in case of C. free from D. in exchange for

4.A. faded B. took place C. impressed D. broke down

5.A. warm B. cold C. mild D. hot

6.A. notice B. support C. help D. operation

7.A. begged B. invited C. forbade D. instructed

8.A. wondered B. resisted C. suspected D. hesitated

9.A. surely B. hardly C. only D. hopefully

10.A. lost B. gathered C. searched D. lacked

11.A. beyond B. through C. around D. in

12.A. feel B. point C. sight D. thought

13.A. because B. as C. if D. unless

14.A. stranger B. beginner C. newcomer D. speaker

15.A. memory B. hand C. look D. difference

16.A. proud of B. excited about C. tired of D. sorry for

17.A. refuse B. promise C. choose D. pause

18.A. kept B. lost C. ignored D. forgotten

19.A. quality B. skill C. lesson D. standard

20.A. upset B. funny C. thrilling D. amazing

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