Why is pink or purple a color for girls and blue or brown for boys?

The answer depends largely on cultural values as well as personal experiences.To the Egyptians,green was a color that represented the hope and joy of spring,while for Muslims,it means heaven.Red is a symbol of good luck in many cultures.In China,children are given money in a red envelope to bring good fortune in the New Year.For many nations,blue is a symbol of protection and religious beliefs.Greek people often wear a blue necklace hoping to protect themselves against evils.

People's choice of colors is also influenced by their bodies' reactions toward them.Green is said to be the most restful color.It has the ability to reduce pain and relax people both mentally and physically.People who work in green environment have been found to have fewer stomach aches.

Red can cause a person's blood pressure to rise and increase people's appetites.Many decorators will include different shades of red in the restaurant.Similarly,many commercial websites will have a red "Buy Now" button because red is a color that easily catches a person's eye.

Blue is another calming color.Unlike red,blue can cause people to lose appetite.So if you want to eat less,some suggest that eating from blue plates can help.

The next time you are deciding on what to wear or what color to decorate your room,think about the color carefully.

1.Muslims regard green as a symbol of heaven mainly because of their .

A. cultural values

B. commercial purposes

C. personal experiences

D. physical reactions to the color

2.Why will many commercial websites have a red "Buy Now" button?

A. To relax people physically.

B. To increase people's appetites.

C. To encourage people to make a purchase.

D. To cause a person's blood pressure to rise.

3.Which of the following would be the most proper title for the text?

A. Colors and Human Beings

B. The Cultural Meaning of Color

C. Colors and Personal Experiences

D. The Meaning and Function of Color

Are you nervous about climbing because you think it's too dangerous?Do you feel you're not fit enough to climb?Do you know how to start climbing?

Let's consider the idea that climbing is dangerous.Being afraid is natural,but if you use suitable ropes and other climbing equipments you will feel completely safe.Climbers are usually very careful because they know what they are doing is dangerous.Accidents may happen,but when they do,they tend to attract a lot of publicity.As a result, people think there are many more accidents than there are in reality.

You cannot expect to start climbing straight away.Climbing is a challenge and challenges take time.It is necessary first of all that you achieve a good level of fitness.Begin as soon as you become interested in climbing—go to the gym,go swimming,take up jogging and continue to do so throughout your training period.

Discover as much as you can about climbing.Visit the library and find books especially for beginners or buy climbing magazines and look for articles which describe your situation.Look up information on the Internet.Find out about equipment,methods and places to go.

Next,take a course on a climbing wall.There are plenty of climbing walls all over the country which have trained and qualified people as instructors.Call your local leisure centre to find out if there is one in your area.These training sessions are a quick way to get experience and you are likely to meet other beginners.After this,you can do an outside course or join a club where you can meet climbers of all abilities and eventually join in group-climbing events.

At first you may not understand the importance of a good training period,but after you have completed your first climb and you are standing safely at the top of a rock feeling thrilled,then you will know it was the right thing to do.

1.The article is written by______.

A. a doctor B. an experienced climber

C. a beginner D. a fitness instructor

2.The writer thinks a new climber should______.

A. begin by becoming fit

B. be aware of the causes of the accidents

C. have the courage to meet the challenges

D. do enough sports to get interested in climbing

3.By climbing walls you can______.

A. join a club you like B. become qualified instructors

C. gain controlled experience D. take part in group-climbing events

4.The underlined word "it" in the last paragraph probably means______.

A. the climb B. the training

C. the equipment D. the achievement

Are you a problem shopper? The answer is “Yes”, if you or someone else thinks that you sometimes get carried away with shopping. In other words, do you or does someone else think you are occupied in extreme shopping? If people have regrets later about their shopping, or have an “out-of-control” feeling about the quantities of what they buy or the amount of credit they use, they may be considered to be problem shoppers.

Extreme shopping can lead to a more serious problem — addictive shopping. Addictive shoppers feel driven by the desire to shop and spend money. They experience great tension which drives them to shop and spend money and they feel a “rush” during the time they are occupied with the shopping activity.

Extreme or addictive shopping may result from long-time unpleasant feelings, of which anxiety, pain and shame are common ones. When we feel bad inside, we often do something to make ourselves feel better. In this case, we often go shopping.

A few people shop to relieve their boredom or emptiness. For some people, the motivation is a desire for status, power, beauty or success. Some love to shop as it makes them feel valued in the eyes of the shop assistants. Others shop simply because it makes them forget, at least temporarily, tension, fear or unhappiness in their life.

Besides, shopping malls are designed to encourage continual shopping. For instance, there are some malls where you can’t see clocks displaying the time because they don’t want you to become too aware of the time you spend there. What’s more, food courts, coffee shops and restrooms are provided, so you don’t have to leave the mall because of your physical needs.

Therefore, once you become aware of how market forces work, you will certainly come to control your shopping behavior. For example, how much time you will spend and what areas you will visit can be decided before you enter the mall. Keep a written account of what items you will buy and how much money you will spend. Make a plan for what you are going to buy before you feel the urge to shop and then stick to it. That is vital for gaining self-control.

1.Which of the following people may not be problem shoppers?

A. Those who cannot control the amount of credit they use.

B. Those who just walk around the shopping malls.

C. Those who are occupied in too much shopping.

D. Those who feel sorry for their shopping.

2.According to the passage, what may not result in addictive shopping?

A. The awareness of how market forces work.

B. The desire for status, power, beauty or success.

C. Boredom, emptiness, tension, fear or unhappiness in people’s life.

D. Long-time bad feelings of anxiety, pain and shame.

3.What does the author suggest to control our shopping behaviour?

A. Never going to the shopping malls because there are many tricks.

B. Applying for a credit card before we go shopping.

C. Making the shopping time as short as possible.

D. Making a shopping list before we go shopping.

4.The author writes this passage to _______.

A. inform the shopping malls how to attract more shoppers

B. scold the problem shoppers

C. provide solutions to the problem shopping

D. tell a shopping story

In a class this past December,after I wrote some directions on the board for students about their final examination,one young woman quickly took a picture of the board using her smart phone.When I looked in her direction,she apologized:"Sorry.Was it wrong to take a picture?"

“I can't read my own handwriting,”the young woman explained."It's best if I take a picture of your writing so I can understand the notes."

That remark started a class-wide conversation about taking a picture instead of taking notes.For those in the photo-taking camp,motivations extended beyond their inability to comprehend their own handwriting.Some took pictures of notes because they knew their phone was a safe place to store material.They might lose paper,but they wouldn't lose their phones.Some took photos because they wanted to record exactly the manner in which I had noted information on the board.Others told me that during class they liked to listen to the discussion attentively.

Yet the use of cameras as note takers,though it may be convenient,does raise significant questions for the classroom.Is a picture an effective replacement for the process of note-taking?

Instructors encourage students to take notes because the act of doing so is more than merely recording necessary information—it helps prepare the way for understanding.Encouraging students to take notes may be an old-fashioned instructional method,but that a method has a long history doesn't mean it's out of date.Writing things down engages a student's brain in listening,visual,and kinesthetic learning—a view supported by a longstanding research.The act of writing down information enables a person to begin committing it to memory,and to process and combine it,establishing the building blocks of learning new concepts.

Taking a picture does indeed record the information,but it deletes some of the necessary mental engagement that taking notes employs.So can the two be equally effective?

I'm not sure how to measure the effectiveness of either method.For now,I allow students to take notes however they see fit—handwritten or photographed—because I figure that some notes,no matter the method of note-taking, are better than none.

1.The woman apologized in the class because she______.

A. took a picture of the board B. missed the teachers' directions

C. had the bad handwriting D. disturbed other students' learning

2.Students refuse to take notes by hand because______.

A. they are unable to take notes

B. they are more likely to lose notes

C. they are interested in using their phones

D. they have a good memory of teachers' instructions

3.According to the passage,taking notes by hand______.

A. requires students to think independently

B. is unsuitable for students to learn new ideas

C. helps students actively participate in learning

D. proves to be an old and useless learning method

4.What's the author's opinion towards taking notes by phones?

A. Supportive. B. Neutral.

C. Doubtful. D. Disapproving.

It's 9 a.m.,the morning rush hour in Toronto.A man has fallen down on a downtown street suddenly.Several passers-by stop to help the man.One woman reaches into her purse for her cellphone and hits 911,the emergency number.1.

Within ten minutes,the stricken man is in the back of an ambulance and is sent to the hospital for life-saving treatment.

This scene is fairly common in Toronto and other major cities.Over the years,cities have developed systems to respond quickly to emergencies.2.But none of this would be possible without the cooperation of car drivers who yield(让路)to emergency vehicles on busy downtown streets.In fact,it's against the law for drivers not to yield.

To yield means to give away or,more specifically,to get out of the way.3.As yet,China doesn't have any specific laws that require drivers to yield,whether it is for slower cars to move over to the inside lane of a highway or for all cars to give way to emergency vehicles.4.Drivers did not yield when they heard the ambulance's siren.

In Canada,failing to yield to an ambulance vehicle can result in a fine of $400~$2,000 and reduction of three points off your license.That's for a first offense.

5.This punishment is severe because lives are in danger.

A.It has resulted in many lives being saved.

B.A second offense results in a bigger fine,the loss of your driver's license for two years and a possible jail sentence.

C.It saves lives and,who knows,someday it may save your own.

D.Three minutes later,sirens(警报)are heard in the distance as a police car,an ambulance and a fire truck race to the area.

E.It means pulling to the side of the road to let others pass.

F.Recently,an injured Beijing cyclist died on the way to hospital because the ambulance carrying him got stuck in city traffic.

G.Safe driving depends on driver's being aware of the traffic around them and yielding when necessary.

A security camera recorded a young boy riding his bicycle up to the home of Hollie Mallet in Louisiana.The boy____in the driveway(私人汽车道)next to her house.Then he____the driveway into the garage,where he gave her dog a quick hug.

In late May,Mallet posted a video from the____on her Facebook page with this message:"Attention neighbors! Does anyone know who this____little boy is?"Mallet____that she had seen the boy a number of times running into her garage to play ball with her dog Dutchess or to____Dutchess.Mallet said,"I'd like to tell him he's____to stay and play;she loves the attention!"

Within two hours of her____,the neighbors helped____her mysterious visitor.The boy turned out to be 9-year- old Josh Breaux.He lives nearby and____dogs.

Mallet____Josh Breaux's mother Ginger by phone to____a play date between the boy and Dutchess the dog. When Josh's mother learned that her son had been going into someone's house____to play with a dog,she was not ____happy.But she was glad her son had found a____.

The Breaux had a dog for most of Josh's life,but family dog had recently died.The Breaux family did not get a new dog____they were too busy to take care of a young dog. Ginger Breaux wrote about her son's____on Facebook just the other day.She wrote:"When we are____and decide it's time to get a new dog,we will definitely keep everyone____!I am still beyond amazed at the positive____the video and story has gotten from all over the world."

1.A. fell B. continued C. stopped D. started

2.A. avoided B. noticed C. covered D. followed

3.A. notebook B. phone C. website D. camera

4.A. noisy B. confident C. sweet D. proud

5.A. suggested B. explained C. argued D. shouted.

6.A. help B. hold C. comfort D. scare

7.A. welcome B. unable C. willing D. anxious

8.A. joke B. post C. report D. warning

9.A. invite B. remember C. identify D. catch .

10.A. loves B. keeps C. walks D. protects

11.A. reached B. knew C. blamed D. praised

12.A. take in B. setup C. breakout D. write down

13.A. slowly B. carelessly C. eagerly D. secretly

14.A. strangely B. immediately C. extremely D. exactly

15.A. friend B. gift C. chance D. result

16.A. because B. so C. if D. though

17.A. problem B. schedule C. experience D. mistake

18.A. calm B. ready C. correct D. normal

19.A. surprised B. honored C. informed D. pleased

20.A. suggestions B. steps C. thinking D. response

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