Believe it nor not, ancient Chinese people had their own methods of heat preservation in winter.

• “Wen Ding”, ancient rice cooker

The “Wen Ding”, an ancient cooking container, preserved heat by burning fuels like charcoal. The one unearthed in Nanjing in 1989 is thought to be the oldest of its kind discovered in China, dating back to the Stone Age.

• “Ran Lu”, ancient small hot pot

The “Ran Lu” is a small-sized cooking vessel (器皿) made of bronze. A charcoal stove forms the main structure, with a bottom tray to hold charcoal ashes, and a movable cup at the top. Some experts have concluded that the vessel’s structure suggests that these vessels became popular in the Warring States Period (475—221 BC).

• Bronze You, ancient kettle

The Bronze You, one of the most common wine containers during the Shang and Zhou, dynasties, could also be used to warm wine. For example, the Bronze You with beast mask design, unearthed in Jiangxi province, had an opening where charcoals could be placed, allowing people to enjoy a hot drink.

• Bronze Yan, ancient steamer

Although the “Wen Ding” was effective at keeping food warm, ancient Chinese people later found that its burning produced pollution. As a result, the Bronze Van was made with a two-tier (双层的) structure and used to steam rice and other grains. After the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 25-AD 220), further improvements to the Bronze Yan led to the modern day steamer.

1.When did the “Ran Lu” begin to gain popularity?

A. In the Zhou Dynasty B. In the Warring States Period.

C. In the Eastern Han Dynasty. D. In the Stone Age.

2.One of the main functions of the Bronze You was to .

A. place hot charcoals B. pour hot water

C. keep wine warm D. hold charcoal ashes

3.One advantage the Bronze Yan had over the “Wen Ding” was that .

A. it was useful B. it was convenient

C. it was environment-friendly D. it was warm

4.According to the passage, which of the following may have the longest history?

A. The "Wen Ding”. B. The “Ran Lu”.

C. The Bronze You. D. The Bronze Yan.

Architects have long had the feeling that the places we live in can affect our thoughts, feelings and behaviors, But now scientists are giving this feelings an empirical(经验的,实证的) basis. They are discovering how to design spaces that promote creativity, keep people focused, and lead to relaxation.

Researches show that aspects of the physical environment can influence creativity. In 2007, Joan Meyers-Levy at the University of Minnesota, reported that the height of a room’s ceiling affects how people to think. Her research indicates that the higher ceilings encourage people to think more freely, which may lead them to make more abstract connections. Low ceilings, on the other hand, may inspire a more detailed outlook.

In addition to ceiling height, the view afforded by a building may influence an occupant’s ability to concentrate. Nancy Wells and her colleagues at Cornell University found in their study that kids who experienced the greatest increase in greenness as a result of a family move made the most gains on a standard test of attention.

Using nature to improve focus of attention ought to pay off academically, and it seems to, according to a study led by C. Kenneth Tanner, head of the School Design &Planning Laboratory at University of Georgia. Tanner and his team found that students in classrooms with unblocked views of at least 50 feet outside the window had higher scores on tests of vocabulary, language arts and maths than did students whose classrooms primarily overlooked roads and parking lots.

Recent study on room lighting design suggests that dim(暗淡的) light helps people to loosen up. If that is true generally, keeping the light low during dinner or at parties could increase relaxation. Researchers of Harvard Medical School also discovered that furniture with rounded edges could help visitors relax.

So far scientists have focused mainly on public buildings. “We have a very limited number of studies, so we’re almost looking at the problem through a straw(吸管), ” architect David Allison says. “How do you take answers to very specific questions and make broad, generalized use of them? That’s what we’re all struggling with.”

1.What does Joan Meyers-Levy focus on in her research?

A. Light. B. Ceilings. C. Windows. D. Furniture.

2.From the passage we know that ________.

A. the shape of furniture may affect people’s feelings

B. lower ceilings may help improve students’ creativity

C. children in a dim classroom may improve their grades

D. Students in rooms with unblocked views may feel relaxed

3.The underlined sentence in the last paragraph probably means that ________.

A. the problem is not approached step by step

B. the researches so far have faults in themselves

C. the problem is too difficult for researchers to detect

D. research in this area is not enough to make generalized patterns

4.What does this passage mainly talks about?

A. The shape of public building affects our thoughts.

B. How room design affects our work and feeling.

C. Physical environment can influence our creativity.

D. Physical environment is of great importance to our focus of attention.

Elizabeth Blackwell was the first woman doctor in the United States. Her success opened the way for other women who wanted to do more than nursing. She was born in England in 1821 and her family moved to America when she was eleven years old.

The Blackwell girls received the same education as their brothers. This was most unusual in those days. Their father died young and they had very little money to live on. Elizabeth and her sisters taught at school. Then a woman dying of cancer urged Elizabeth to study medicine, saying that a woman doctor would have saved her from her worst sufferings. Nearly everyone said a girl should not go to medical school, but she managed to enter Geneva College in New York State. She graduated in 1849 at the head of her class and received the first medical degree ever given to a woman.

Next, Dr. Blackwell went to Paris. Her only chance of training was in a hospital where women came to have their babies. Four months later, while she was working in the French hospital, her left eye became dangerously infected (感染). She lost the eye. She was very disappointed. But she was soon back at work again, this time in London, England. There she met many famous scientists.

In 1859, Elizabeth Blackwell was officially recognized as a doctor in Great Britain — the first woman to be honored. She was the inspiration of Elizabeth Garrett, who began the women’s medical movement in England. Florence Nightingale, founder of the practice of nursing by women, was another of her friends.

Dr. Blackwell died in 1910 at the age of 89.

1.Elizabeth and her sisters taught at school probably to .

A. help support the family B. become women doctors

C. get practical experience D. earn money for their education

2.What made Elizabeth decide to study medicine?

A. The education she received. B. The death of her father.

C. The sufferings of a cancer patient. D. The encouragement from a patient.

3.Which of the following is the correct order of events according to the passage?

a. Elizabeth Blackwell lost one eye.

b. Elizabeth Blackwell received a doctor’s degree.

c. Elizabeth Blackwell entered Geneva College.

d. Elizabeth Blackwell was recognized as a doctor.

e. Elizabeth Blackwell went to work in London.

A. cabed B. cbaed

C. acbed D. bcade

4.What can we infer from the last two paragraphs?

A. Elizabeth Blackwell was more famous in Britain.

B. Elizabeth Blackwell learned from other women.

C. Elizabeth Garrett gave Elizabeth Blackwell much help.

D. Florence Nightingale was encouraged by Elizabeth Blackwell.

I worked in a restaurant. One night a woman came in with three small children. As a ______, I could usually tell who is going to tip well and who isn’t going to tip at all I ______ got the latter vibe (气息) from her. She asked about the ______ of everything on the menu, but she ordered ______ water to drink. She wasn’t ______ appetizers (开胃饮料). At one point her daughter asked her very politely: “Mom, can I have ______?” The woman pulled out her coin purse and ______ her change before saying yes. Then I was ______ that I wouldn’t get a tip, but they were very nice and pleasant to ______ so I didn’t even think twice about it.

At the end of the meal, she paid ______ in coins.

When I went back to clear the table, to my ______, there were a lot of quarters left for me. They amounted to $ 8, or about 25% of the ______. Here was a woman who had to count her money before ______ her daughter a milk because she wanted to ______ she still had enough to tip me.

Was it the largest tip I ever got? No, but it’s the only one I ______ after all these years.

This story is a ______ that the very best aspects of human nature can shine through in even the most ______ of everyday situations. The first ______ may be powerful, but it’s important to let others show their true nature rather than making a snap (仓促的) ______ about them. As a matter of fact, generosity is a valuable virtue, whether you ______ to be rich, poor, or somewhere in between.

1.A. manager B. director C. waiter D. cashier

2.A. certainly B. positively C. suddenly D. regularly

3.A. material B. price C. taste D. colour

4.A. even B. much C. also D. only

5.A. content with B. aware of C. interested in D. ready for

6.A. juice B. soda C. milk D. cocoa

7.A. counted up B. used up C. stared at D. played with

8.A. worried B. convinced C. disappointed D. annoyed

9.A. please B. approach C. serve D. attend

10.A. largely B. partly C. rarely D. entirely

11.A. surprise B. satisfaction C. amusement D. regret

12.A. dish B. meal C. amount D. menu

13.A. ordering B. fetching C. passing D. preparing

14.A. believe B. insist C. ensure D. admit

15.A. understand B. remember C. require D. save

16.A. container B. judge C. performer D. reminder

17.A. normal B. ordinary C. important D. unusual

18.A. impression B. thought C. prediction D. expression

19.A. choice B. comparison C. analysis D. decision

20.A. attempt B. happen C. fail D. desire

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am writing to apply for the Sales Manager position on the careers page of the King Computers website. Last year King Computers added five new offices, making it the largest computer sales and services company in the state. I understand that one of the company’s aims is to expand outside of the Washington area. I hope to have the chance to play an important role in your growing business. As a sales manager with Diamond Computers, I expanded our sales area by 150% in two years. I am sure that my leadership and experience will help King Computers achieve its goals, too.

I have worked in the field of computer sales for over fifteen years. Now I am a sales manager for Diamond Computers based in Seattle. I am skilled at managing accounts and increasing sales revenue(收益). Last year, my team produced $960,000 in revenue---the highest in the company. I am experienced at planning sales strategies(策略), developing advertising campaigns, and creating sales budgets(预算).

King Computers is well-known for its customer-first philosophy. In my fifteen years in sales, this way of thinking is the most important thing I have learned. A sales strategy should never be just about getting money from customers. I believe it’s important to take the time to listen to each customer---to understand what he or she really needs. As a sales manager for King Computers, I will be in a great position to do just that.

If you are looking for a skilled sales manager with a history of success, I would be delighted to speak with you.

I look forward to hearing from you soon.


Paul Reubens

1.According to the passage, what is Paul Reubens?

A. the sales manager of the Diamond Computers

B. the interviewer of the Diamond Computers

C. the sales manager of the King Computers

2.What is one of King Computers’ aims?

A. To set new goals. B. To add five new offices.

C. To hire more sales managers. D. To make its business grow bigger.

3.Paul Reubens is experienced at _______.

A. managing accounts B. creating sales budgets

C. planning sales strategies D. all above

4.Paul Reubens wrote this letter in order to________.

A. tell us that he is skillful as a sales manager

B. show he is fit for the job at King Computers

C. explain why he is interested in selling computers

D. describe what he has experienced for over fifteen years

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