Elizabeth Blackwell was the first woman doctor in the United States. Her success opened the way for other women who wanted to do more than nursing. She was born in England in 1821 and her family moved to America when she was eleven years old.

The Blackwell girls received the same education as their brothers. This was most unusual in those days. Their father died young and they had very little money to live on. Elizabeth and her sisters taught at school. Then a woman dying of cancer urged Elizabeth to study medicine, saying that a woman doctor would have saved her from her worst sufferings. Nearly everyone said a girl should not go to medical school, but she managed to enter Geneva College in New York State. She graduated in 1849 at the head of her class and received the first medical degree ever given to a woman.

Next, Dr. Blackwell went to Paris. Her only chance of training was in a hospital where women came to have their babies. Four months later, while she was working in the French hospital, her left eye became dangerously infected (感染). She lost the eye. She was very disappointed. But she was soon back at work again, this time in London, England. There she met many famous scientists.

In 1859, Elizabeth Blackwell was officially recognized as a doctor in Great Britain — the first woman to be honored. She was the inspiration of Elizabeth Garrett, who began the women’s medical movement in England. Florence Nightingale, founder of the practice of nursing by women, was another of her friends.

Dr. Blackwell died in 1910 at the age of 89.

1.Elizabeth and her sisters taught at school probably to .

A. help support the family B. become women doctors

C. get practical experience D. earn money for their education

2.What made Elizabeth decide to study medicine?

A. The education she received. B. The death of her father.

C. The sufferings of a cancer patient. D. The encouragement from a patient.

3.Which of the following is the correct order of events according to the passage?

a. Elizabeth Blackwell lost one eye.

b. Elizabeth Blackwell received a doctor’s degree.

c. Elizabeth Blackwell entered Geneva College.

d. Elizabeth Blackwell was recognized as a doctor.

e. Elizabeth Blackwell went to work in London.

A. cabed B. cbaed

C. acbed D. bcade

4.What can we infer from the last two paragraphs?

A. Elizabeth Blackwell was more famous in Britain.

B. Elizabeth Blackwell learned from other women.

C. Elizabeth Garrett gave Elizabeth Blackwell much help.

D. Florence Nightingale was encouraged by Elizabeth Blackwell.


Drive through any suburb in the U.S. today,and it's hard to miss the bins that have become companions to America's trash cans.Recycling has become commonplace,as people recognize the need to care for the environment. Yet most people's recycling consciousness extends only as far as paper,bottles,and cans.People seldom find themselves facing the growing problem of e-waste.

E-waste rapidly increases as the techno-fashionable frequently upgrade to the most advanced devices,and the majority of them end up in landfills(垃圾填埋地).Some people who track such waste say that users throw away nearly 2 million tons of TVs,VCRs,computers,cell phones,and other electronics every year.Unless we can find a safe replacement,this e-waste may get into the ground and poison the water with dangerous toxins(毒素),such as lead, mercury,and arsenic.Burning the waste also dangerously contaminates the air.

However,e-waste often contains reusable silver.gold.and other electrical materials.Recycling these materials reduces environmental problems by reducing both landfill waste and the need to look for such metals,which can destroy ecosystems.

A growing number of states have adopted laws to ban dumping e-waste.Still,less than a quarter of this refuse will reach lawful recycling programs.Some companies advertising safe disposal(处置)in fact merely ship the waste to some developing countries,where it still ends up in landfills.These organizations prevent progress by unsafely disposing of waste in an out-of-sight,out-of-mind location.

However,the small but growing number of cities and corporations that do handle e-waste responsibly represents progress toward making the world a cleaner,better place for us all.

1.What can we infer from the first paragraph?

A. Most Americans have realized the dangers of e-waste.

B. E-waste cannot be put into trash cans in the U.S.

C. Many Americans now have access to recycling bins.

D. Most of America's trash cans are made of recycled material.

2.What can best replace the underlined word "contaminates" in Paragraph 2?

A. Pollutes. B. Heats.

C. Absorbs. D. Reduces.

3.How does the author feel about burying e-waste m landfills?

A. It's important. B. It's unsafe.

C. It's acceptable. D. It's uncommon.

4.What's the author's purpose in writing this text?

A. To tell us how to recycle e-waste.

B. To talk about the future of e-waste.

C. To discuss if it's necessary to recycle e-waste.

D. To encourage us to deal with e-waste properly.

Six people are talking about the newly-built garden on the roof of their building.

Jasmine: I loved the idea when Wilber first told me about it. We had lots of meetings with our neighbors, trying to make them understand why it’s good to build a garden on the roof. Now people love coming here, and we have made a lot of friends!

Wilber: The whole thing wasn’t easy at first. But Jasmine helped a lot. And she was really good at making people happy to donate (捐赠) money for the roof garden.

David: My kids love going up there. They sit there watching butterflies and birds. The roof garden brings them closer to nature.

Samuel: You want something green? Visit the park! It’s only one block away! After the roof garden was built, small insects started flying into my room! And the kids leave mud on the stairs when they come down from the roof!

Rosie: Our building is now cooler in the summer. My baby sleeps well even on hot summer days!

Flora: Guess where these tomatoes are from! Not from the supermarket. They’re from our roof! It’s wonderful, isn’t?

1.Who dislikes the roof garden?

A. Jasmine B. Rosie

C. Samuel D. Flora

2.What does Wilber tell us?

A. Jasmine helped to get the money.

B. Tomatoes grew well on the roof.

C. Children always make stairs dirty.

D. There are birds in the roof garden.

3.What can be inferred from the interview?

A. Babies like sleeping in the roof garden.

B. Most of the speakers love the roof garden.

C. The roof tomatoes sell well in the supermarket.

D. David first came up with the idea of a roof garden.


Interruptions are one of the worst things to deal with while you’re trying to get work done.1.,there are several ways to handle things.Let’s take a look at them now.

2..Tell the person you’re sorry and explain that you have a million things to do and then ask if the two of you can talk at a different time.

When people try to interrupt you,have set hours planned and let them know to come back during that time or that you’ll find them then.3..It can help to eliminate(消除) future interruptions.

When you need to talk to someone,don’t do it in your own office.4.it’s much easeier to excuse yourself to get back to your work than if you try to get someone out of your space even after explaining how busy you are

If you have a door to your office, make good use of it.5.If someone knocks and it’s not an important matter. excuse yourself and let the person know you’re busy so they can get the hint(暗示) than when the door is closed,you’re not to be disturbed.

A.If you’re busy, don’t feel bad about saying no

B. When you want to avoid interruptions at work

C. Set boundaries for yourselfas your time goes

D. If you’re in the other person’s office or in a public area

E. It’s important that you let them know when you’ll be available

F. It might seem unkind to cut people short when they interrupt you

G.Leave it open when you’re available to talk and close it when you’re not

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