The Indian government may use 3D paintings as virtual speed breakers(减速带) on major highways and roads, in order to check speeding and careless driving, and finally make its deadly roads a little safer. "We are trying out 3D paintings used as virtual speed breakers to avoid unnecessary requirements of speed breakers," India's transport minister Nitin Gadkari wrote.

The optical illusions(视觉错觉) are supposed to encourage drivers to slow down automatically. Earlier, India had ordered the removal of all speed breakers from highways, which are considered to be a safety hazard for high-speed vehicles. India has the highest number of road accident deaths in the world. According to the World Health Organisation, over 200,000 people are killed by road accidents.

The use of optical illusions as speed breakers was first pioneered in the American city of Philadelphia in 2008, as part of a campaign against speeding motorists. The technique has also been tried out in China to create floating 3D crossings. In India, cities such as Ahmedabad and Chennai have already experimented with 3D zebra crossings in the last one year. In Ahmedabad for instance, a mother and her daughter, both artists, have painted 3D crosswalks in the first few months of 2016. The artists say their motto is "to increase the attention of drivers", and that the concept has been successfully tested in accident-prone zones on a highway.

However, critics argue that once drivers know that these speed breakers are visual illusions, they may ignore them. Others also point out that India's decision does not consider the safety of a large number of pedestrians. In the end, the new policy may be just one step towards improving road safety.

1.Why are 3D paintings used on main highways and roads?

A. To make the surroundings more beautiful.

B. To attract the attention of tourists.

C. To reduce the rate of traffic accidents.

D. To show the advanced technology.

2.Which of the following words is closest to the meaning of “hazard” in paragraph 2?

A. Reminder B. Threat

C. Regulation D. Theory

3.What can we learn from Paragraph 3 and 4?

A. Philadelphia, the U.S.A is th second place to use virtual speed breakers in the world.

B. The idea tested in Ahmedabad recently has been a failure.

C. The new policy of 3D zebra crossings must be carried out smoothly.

D. The use of optical illusions as speed breakers is controversial in India.

4.What do we know about 3D zebra crossings from the passage?

A. They can vastly lower the death rate in India.

B. They have been widely used in India so far.

C. They are designed to increase drivers’ attention.

D. They are welcomed by both drivers and pedestrians.

I used to believe courtesy was a thing of the past. Very seldom have I encountered a courteous human being in this modern era.

Recently, I had to change my thinking, when I came face to face with just such a human being in a coffee place, with my two daughters. The place was crowded as usual and we had to climb steep stairs in order to find an empty table. After enjoying coffee and snacks, we went down the narrow stairs, where there was hardly any space for another person to either climb up or come down.

Just as I was in the middle of the stairs, a gentleman entered the main entrance of the restaurant which was right in front of the staircase. I was sure I would be pushed roughly by this man going up. I kept coming down as fast as I could. My daughters were already down, looking up at me worriedly, hoping I would reach them before the stranger started walking up the stairs, knowing I was a nervous sort.

Nearly reaching them, I noticed the man still standing near the door. I reached my daughters and passed the stranger at the entrance door which he kept holding open. I looked back thinking he was still at the door, deciding whether to go in or find another less crowded place. I saw him going up the stairs, two at a time. I told my daughters about it and all three of us felt bad that we did not even thank the courteous gentleman who was actually holding the door open for us ladies to pass through before going up.

Such well mannered people are hard to find these days, when pushing is very common in our advanced but aggressive society. We applauded for his chivalry(骑士精神).

1.What did the author think of the man at the first sight of him?

A. He was in a hurry. B. He would wait for her.

C. He would cross her rudely. D. He was a man with good manners.

2.Why did the author’s daughters worry about her?

A. She was too old to walk fast. B. She was easy to be disturbed.

C. She took up too much space. D. She focused too much on the man.

3.What can we learn about the man from Paragraph 4?

A. He might be a waiter of the café.

B. He might have an urgent business to do.

C. He fell in love with one of the author’s daughters.

D. He would hold the door open for all.

Informal conversation is an important part of any business relationship. 1.Latin Americans enjoy sharing information about their local history, art, and customs. They expect questions about their family and are sure to show pictures of their children. The French think of conversation as an art form. 2.For them, arguments can be interesting---and they can cover pretty much or any topic---as long as they occur in a respectful and intelligent manner.

In the United States, business people like to discuss a wide range of topics, including opinions about work, family, hobbies, and politics. 3.They do not share much about their thoughts, feelings, or emotions because they feel that doing so might take away from the harmonious business relationship they’re trying to build. Middle Easterners are also private about their personal lives and family matters. It is considered rude, for example, to ask a businessman from Saudi Arabia about his wife or children.

4.This can get you into trouble, even in the United States, where people hold different views. Sports is typically a friendly subject in most parts of the world, although be careful not to criticize a national sport.5.

A.Instead, be friendly and praise your host’s team.

B.You may feel free to ask your Latin American friends similar questions.

C.Before you start a discussion, however, make sure you understand which topics are suitable in a particular culture.

D.In Japan, China, and Korea, however, people are much more private.

E.In addition, discussing one’s salary is usually considered unsuitable.

F.They enjoy the value of lively discussions as well as disagreements.

G.As a general rule, it’s best not to talk about politics or religion with your business friends.

Do not push yourself too hard

One Friday earlier this school year, all of a sudden it felt like I had pulled a muscle in my back. I knew I was _____. After a few days I stopped eating, which meant I lost ______; the clothes bought two weeks earlier began hanging _____. In addition, I started _____ so less that my eyelids were constantly heavy. My parents got ______. I thought fear wasn’t going to ______my life. Yet, I spent every minute of every day _____ how I was going to get myself out of trouble, and it made me mad.

Then I _____ to accept I was ill. I kept my job working 25 hours a week in a shop; I didn’t ____ any classes. When I was _____, I sucked it up and kept on going. _____ it kills you, it makes you stronger, right?

But now I find myself thinking whether that’s _____ it. I’m taking the classes and writing for the newspaper because it looks _____ on college applications. And I am working 25 hours a week so that, _____ I get into my dream school, I can afford it.

Here I am, already sick from the amount of work. So, what good is a(n) _____ application if I’m dead? What is the ____ of doing this work if I can’t enjoy the results?

____, by writing my story I’m not only _____ that I can’t take it, but I’m telling all the people who are too concerned with the _____ to worry about now. This is my warning: Don’t ______ the high dive if you don’t like the deep end.

1.A. tired B. ill C. sad D. cold

2.A. heart B. chance C. confidence D. weight

3.A. loose B. proper C. regular D. tight

4.A. protecting B. sleeping C. amusing D. observing

5.A. annoyed B. disturbed C. scared D. shocked

6.A. control B. lose C. take D. explore

7.A. noticing B. showing C. answering D. wondering

8.A. refused B. agreed C. determined D. managed

9.A. attend B. choose C. drop D. expect

10.A. leaving B. training C. performing D. hurting

11.A. Since B. If C. Though D. Unless

12.A. unfair B. honest C. worth D. equal

13.A. firm B. good C. curious D. serious

14.A. once B. though C. unless D. whether

15.A. expensive B. impressive C. instructive D. sensitive

16.A. point B. duty C. promise D. action

17.A. In case B. In return C. In fact D. In all

18.A. regretting B. reporting C. desiring D. admitting

19.A. income B. education C. pressure D. future

20.A. cross B. escape C. climb D. avoid

London Heathrow Airport

London Heathrow Airport is a major international airport in west London,England,United Kingdom.Heathrow is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic.Heathrow is also the third busiest airport in the world by total passenger traffic.In 2016,it handled a record 75.7 million passengers,a 1.0 percent increase from 2015.

Location

Heathrow is 14 miles west of central London.The airport is surrounded by the built-up areas of Harlington. Harmondsworth,Longford and Cranford to the north and by Hounslow and Hatton to the east.To the south lie Bedfont and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Colnbrook in Berkshire by the M25 motorway.

History

Heathrow Airport started in 1929 as a small airfield on land south-east of the hamlet of Heathrow from which the airport takes its name.At that time there were farms and market gardens and orchards there.Development of the whole Heathrow area as a very big airfield started in 1944: it was stated to be for long-distance military aircraft bound for the Far East.But by the time the airfield was nearing completion,World War Ⅱ had ended.The government continued to develop the airfield as a civil airport;opened as London Airport in 1946 and renamed Heathrow Airport in 1966.

Facilities

Heathrow Airport is used by over 90 airlines flying to 170 destinations worldwide.The airport is the primary hub of British Airways,and is a base for Virgin Atlantic.Of Heathrow's 75.7 million passengers in 2016,93% were international travellers;the remaining 70% were bound for UK destinations.The busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York,with over 3 million passengers flying between Heathrow and JFK Airport in 2016.

1.We can know from the text that Heathrow Airport is named after a(n)____.

A. person B. animal

C. place D. plant

2.What can we learn about London Heathrow Airport from the text?

A. It has a history or over 90 years.

B. It handled fewer than 70 million passengers in 2016.

C. Most of its passengers are bound for UK destinations.

D. It has the third largest number of passengers in the world.

3.What is the purpose of the text?

A. To introduce basic information about Heathrow Airport.

B. To attract more travelers to Heathrow Airport.

C. To indicate the history o f Heathrow Airport.

D. To show the convenience of Heathrow Airport.

Christmas was near a season that we took seriously in our house. But a week or so before the 25th, my father would give each of his children $ 20. This was the 1970s, and $ 20 was quite a bit of money.

But I saw it differently. My father trusted me to have the smart to spend money wisely. Even better, he gave me the means to get it. On a very basic level, my father was giving me a shopping spree (狂欢) every year.. But he was also giving me charge over my own fun, trusting my ability to manage money and making me feel like a grown-up. He didn’t buy me Sherlock Holmes, but he gave me the means to walk into the bookstore and choose it for myself, so it felt like a gift from him.

My mother had a gift for giving me what I needed, usually right at the moment I needed it most. This was when I was 25, I failed at being an adult on my very first try. I had quitted my previous job but had no new one. But when my mother paid me a visit, I put on a good show, telling her I had started my own company.

My mother knew that I was trying hard and failing at that time. It wasn’t until after she left that I noticed at the foot of my bed an envelope thick with cash. She knew how desperately I needed it. She knew that had she just shown up with groceries, or offered to pay my rent, she would have made me feel much worse. The cold, hard cash meant she was helping me. And, funnily enough, the distance with which she gave the gift felt like she was giving me space to fix my life and preserve my dignity. My mother and father both did the same thing. One was giving me the means to take my own decisions, and the other was giving me a second chance when those decisions had cost me dearly.

1.What can we learn about the author from the first two paragraphs?

A. His family once celebrated Christmas happily.

B. His father gave the author chances to make decisions.

C. His best memories about Christmas were in the 1970s.

D. He used to choose books as his father’s gift on Christmas.

2.What does the underlined word “it” in Paragraph 2 refer to?

A. money offered by his father. B. father generous with money.

C. Christmas being important. D. the means of spending money.

3.When he was 25 years old, the author .

A. planned to open his company B. became interested in shows

C. gave his mother a gift D. was out of work

4.Which word can best describe the author’s mother?

A. sensitive. B. optimistic.

C. considerate. D. determined.

Andrew Jackson has been sitting pretty on the $20 bill for 87 years.Is it time to bring some new blood to the banknote?

The non-profit organization called Women on 20s is campaigning to put a woman's face on American money. Barbara Ortiz Howard,the company's founder,would like to see a woman on the $20 bill by 2020.That year marks the 100-year anniversary of the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution,which gave women the right to vote.

Howard got the idea when she realized that her daughter had no everyday reminders of famous women in history.She asked her friend Susan Ades Stone,a journalist,to join her cause."Part of the aim is to educate as many people as possible about as many women as possible,"Ades says."We want to see how many people we can reach."

American money values the successes of former presidents and founding fathers.Currently,there are only two women on money: Susan B.Anthony is the face of the rare dollar coin,and Sacagawea can be seen on the gold dollar coin.There are no women on paper bills.

With help from writers and historians,Howard and Stone came up with a voting list featuring 15 important women.Ades says there is a standard for choosing candidates.They look at the women's contributions to our world, and at what challenges they faced.

More than 72,000 people have voted so far in the poll.Ades says the competition has narrowed to a "very close race",but won't say who's in the lead.After two rounds of voting,Women on 20s will send their campaign to the White House for consideration.The final decision is up to the Treasury Secretary,Jack Lew.Lew is unlikely to make a change without the president's approval.But last year,when a little girl asked the president why there aren't any women on US currency,he said that adding a woman is a "pretty good idea".

1.When did American women begin to enjoy voting rights?

A. In the 1920s. B. In the 19th century.

C. Fewer than 20 years ago. D. More than 200 years ago.

2.We can know from the text that_______.

A. Howard and Stone decided the voting list on their own

B. Howard's idea has something to do with her daughter

C. so far no American women have appeared on coins

D. former presidents rule American money

3.What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

A. Ades has announced the victor of the voting.

B. It's impossible for Jack Lew to make a change.

C. The president will probably support such a change.

D. The final decision is due to be made by the president.

4.What can be the best title of the text?

A. The future faces of money

B. Different faces chosen on money

C. Constant changes in money faces

D. A campaign for women's faces on money

Red wolves used to be a common sight across the southeastern United States.But today,there are just 50 left in the wild.

The red wolf is one of the most endangered wild canine species(犬科动物)in the world.In the past five years, the species' population in the wild has dropped by half.The US Fish and Wildlife Service had been working for decades to reintroduce the species into the wild,but the organization recently put the program on hold.

According to Cindy Dohner,the southeast regional director for the Fish and Wildlife Service,the agency is focusing on "our commitment to get the science right and rebuild trust with our neighbors in those communities as we address problems regarding the recovery of the red wolf."But the animal-rights group Defenders of Wildlife said on its website that the decision made by the Fish and Wildlife Service "falls well short of what is needed to continue red wolf recovery."

The red wolf was declared an endangered species in 1967.By 1980,it had been hunted to extinction(灭绝)in the wild.Some hunters thought the red wolves were coyotes(土狼), so most people killed them because they believed wolves were dangerous and would attack people.This wrong belief has made it difficult to restore the species, because people are afraid to have red wolves reintroduced near human communities.

Experts say that one way to fight these fears is simply to teach people about red wolves.In reality,they are shy animals that they don't get close to humans and hunt mostly at night.According to the Fish and Mildlife Service, captive breeding centers in the US are home to about 200 red wolves.But without continued efforts from the government and private groups,red wolves will continue to suffer.

1.The underlined phrase "put...on hold" in Paragraph 2 probably means “ ”.

A. paused B. promoted

C. overlooked D. accomplished

2.What does Defenders of Wildlife think of the Fish and Wildlife Service's decision?

A. Practical. B. Annoying.

C. Satisfactory. D. Disappointing.

3.The trouble in reintroducing red wolves near human communities lies in____.

A. humans' over-hunting

B. fears in human beings

C. shortage of food in the wild

D. lack of governmental support

4.What can we know about red wolves from the text?

A. They don't hunt in the daytime at all.

B. Their total population in the world is only 50.

C. They keep away from humans due to shyness.

D. They are dangerous because they attack people.

Johannes Gutenberg was chosen to be the most important figure of the past millennium(千年)by the media. You may not be familiar with him.1.Gutenberg is praised for having invented the printing press and therefore preparing the way for printing books.

He was born into a wealthy family in the city of Mainz,Germany.In 1428,he moved to Strasbourg and lived there for almost 20 years.2.

Gutenberg used his skills in metalwork for the mass production of books.3.That means that each copy of the Catholic Bible and all of its 73 books were painstakingly handwritten by penmen.Gutenberg fashioned a font(字体)of over 300 characters,far larger than the fonts of today.To make this possible,he invented the variable-width mold(模具)and perfected the mixture of materials used by type factories up to the present century.

4.Between 1450 and 1455,while preparing to produce a large Latin Bible,Gutenberg is thought to have printed a number of smaller books,a calendar,and so on.The Bible of 42 Lines,the oldest surviving printed book in the Western world,was completed by August 15,1456.

The discovery of the modem printing press changed the way information was delivered.5.

Even today in the computer age,we rely heavily on the printed word or text for instruction,information,and for the pleasure of reading literature.

A.Gutenberg made the world a much richer place.

B.But he has certainly influenced your life in some ways.

C.Gutenberg's idea was one of the greatest of all mankind.

D.By 1450,Gutenberg was back in Mainz at work on a printing press.

E.This invention was also responsible for educating the masses worldwide.

F.Before the spread of Gutenberg's idea,literature was primarily handwritten.

G.It was in Strasbourg that he probably made his first experiments with moveable type.

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