Seven years ago,back in 2010,some reports covered a story that the world's longest railway tunnel was under construction in Switzerland.At that point it had already been under construction for over a decade.It had been voted to be built nearly a quarter of a century ago!The idea to build it could date back to nearly 70 years ago—about as old as some of your grandparents!

Yesterday,it was finally ready!

It's 35 miles long and runs 7,500 feet beneath the Swiss Alps,a famous mountain range in Switzerland.It even runs under an old tunnel that was there before.It took a total of 17 years to build at a cost of $12 billion.128 million tons of rock were dug.Two million truckloads of earth were removed!

The tunnel connects northern and southern Europe.The opening of this runnel was such a big deal that the Germany's leader,Chancellor Angela Merkel,France's president,Francois Hollande,and Italy's prime minister,Matteo Renzi,were an there to celebrate,as was Austria's chancellor Christian Kern.

It's called the Gotthard Base Tunnel.Eventually,325 freight and passenger trains will go through the tunnel,relieving a lot of traffic on the roadways there and making it a more environmentally friendly option.The Gotthard Base Tunnel is a wonder of engineering!Make us want to visit it!

1.When did people first have the idea of building the Tunnel?

A. About 70 years ago. B. Half a century ago.

C. Twenty five years ago. D. Seven years ago.

2.What can we learn about the Tunnel?

A. It used to be an old tunnel. B. It has just been completed.

C. It connects all European countries. D. It runs over a range of mountains.

3.What may be the purpose of building the Tunnel?

A. To improve traffic. B. To increase employment.

C. To attract donation. D. To stop pollution.

4.What can be inferred about the Tunnel?

A. It will cause conflicts among countries. B. It will be of little benefit to the locals.

C. It may do damage to the environment. D. It may become a tourist attraction.

Many editors have a rule that they will not even read stories that are not formatted and presented as requested in their Submission(投稿)Guidelines.Even if this policy is not stated,it affects their decision-making.There are a few reasonable reasons.

A good editor likes to read all stories for the first time in the same format(格式)as the publication standard.A consistent format between manuscripts(手稿)removes distractions like unusual presentation and puts each manuscript on the same starting level,with the focus on content.

Leading publications get thousands of submissions a year.Editor time is extremely valuable.Most editors enjoy finding gems among the manuscripts,but they really dislike reformatting(don't you prefer eating an elegant meal to washing dishes?).When an editor sees he will have to spend an extra half hour of precious time in reformatting,he subconsciously marks that submission down compared to other submissions of equal quality.

Publications need to have consistency in formatting for all their published stories: letterform,type size,spacing, paragraph structure etc.This keeps the reader’s focus on the words and not their structure.Since editors don't have a choice to just accept a weirdly(古怪的)formatted story as it is,they are forced to either reformat or decline the submission.

Publications use different software and other tools in their operations.Editors know what makes their system go smoothly.Many invisible software formatting structures between types of documents create disasters.

Editors are not pedantic(迂腐的).Their job is to find great material and expose those works to appreciative readers.Differently formatted manuscripts steal time away from that responsibility,which is bad for everyone.Editors love nothing more than finishing a read and thinking “Wow.A great story-AND it's cut and paste!"

1.What does the underlined word "gems" refer to in the third paragraph?

A. Precious Jewels. B. Creative formats.

C. Great stories. D. Amazing characters.

2.What kind of manuscript is most likely to be refused?

A. One with no special structures.

B. One with a general letterform.

C. One with attractive plots.

D. One with a weird format.

3.What does the passage mainly talk about?

A. How the editors usually work.

B. Why publications need consistent format.

C. Why the manuscript's format can influence the editor's decision.

D. The ways on how to format manuscripts.

Drive through any suburb in the U.S. today,and it's hard to miss the bins that have become companions to America's trash cans.Recycling has become commonplace,as people recognize the need to care for the environment. Yet most people's recycling consciousness extends only as far as paper,bottles,and cans.People seldom find themselves facing the growing problem of e-waste.

E-waste rapidly increases as the techno-fashionable frequently upgrade to the most advanced devices,and the majority of them end up in landfills(垃圾填埋地).Some people who track such waste say that users throw away nearly 2 million tons of TVs,VCRs,computers,cell phones,and other electronics every year.Unless we can find a safe replacement,this e-waste may get into the ground and poison the water with dangerous toxins(毒素),such as lead, mercury,and arsenic.Burning the waste also dangerously contaminates the air.

However,e-waste often contains reusable other electrical materials.Recycling these materials reduces environmental problems by reducing both landfill waste and the need to look for such metals,which can destroy ecosystems.

A growing number of states have adopted laws to ban dumping e-waste.Still,less than a quarter of this refuse will reach lawful recycling programs.Some companies advertising safe disposal(处置)in fact merely ship the waste to some developing countries,where it still ends up in landfills.These organizations prevent progress by unsafely disposing of waste in an out-of-sight,out-of-mind location.

However,the small but growing number of cities and corporations that do handle e-waste responsibly represents progress toward making the world a cleaner,better place for us all.

1.What can we infer from the first paragraph?

A. Most Americans have realized the dangers of e-waste.

B. E-waste cannot be put into trash cans in the U.S.

C. Many Americans now have access to recycling bins.

D. Most of America's trash cans are made of recycled material.

2.What can best replace the underlined word "contaminates" in Paragraph 2?

A. Pollutes. B. Heats.

C. Absorbs. D. Reduces.

3.How does the author feel about burying e-waste m landfills?

A. It's important. B. It's unsafe.

C. It's acceptable. D. It's uncommon.

4.What's the author's purpose in writing this text?

A. To tell us how to recycle e-waste.

B. To talk about the future of e-waste.

C. To discuss if it's necessary to recycle e-waste.

D. To encourage us to deal with e-waste properly.

Just recently I had been wondering if there was much point in doing little acts of kindness.So often they get ____,and occasionally they come back to bite you!

Then,just last week,after a long travel.I found myself____at a bus station.The bus was four hours late!So,I guess I wasn’t in a good____.

That’s when a woman asked me if I had any spare____to help her get a bus ticket.

“Oh,sure.”I said sarcastically(挖苦地).”How much would you like?”

As I spoke,I mentally kicked myself for my____and reached into my bag for some money.As I handed her five dollars.I heard low sounds from her stomach because of real____.

I reached back into my bag and brought out a____I had bought earlier.I handed it to her with a(n)____that I hoped would make up for my earlier tone of voice.Getting a____look at her now.I realized she was extremely tired, like she had had several months of____days!

As she took the food,a look of____washed over her.In return,she tried to give me a Milwaukee bus ticket!I don’t live in Milwaukee and the ticket will probably____be used,but I took it.

A few minutes later she came back over,apologized,and told me she was still____of five dollars.I took some singles out of my bad and slipped a twenty in there as well.____,the voice in my head told me I was being a fool.

Five minutes later she came back again and tired to____my twenty.When I said it was for her so she could get something else to____,and that I was completely serious and I wasn’t taking it____,she started crying and hugged me.

From now on,when I wonder if it is____trying to help someone,I will remember that woman.Maybe I an really making a____for someone.So,sure,sometimes my efforts might not be noticed,and sometimes they might come back to bite me,but they might actually____another human being!

1.A. ignored B. appreciated C. acknowledged D. forgiven

2.A. examined B. trapped C. confused D. delayed

3.A. habit B. place C. mood D. situation

4.A. change B. time C. hand D. energy

5.A. appearance B. attitude C. selfishness D. experience

6.A. pain B. anxiety C. hunger D. fear

7.A. souvenir B. ticket C. gift D. cake

8.A. shout B. smile C. apology D. praise

9.A. quick B. gentle C. good D. cold

10.A. dark B. tough C. mysterious D. special

11.A. relief B. regret C. doubt D. anger

12.A. once B. often C. sometimes D. never

13.A. ashamed B. aware C. short D. proud

14.A. Eventually B. However C. Therefore D. Besides

15.A. return B. show C. share D. earn

16.A. do B. trade C. add D. eat

17.A. away B. out C. back D. over

18.A. hard B. fun C. useless D. worth

19.A. difference B. profit C. decision D. suggestion

20.A. excite B. help C. educate D. inspire

I had never had a birthday party before,so at my “ripe old” age.I decided to throw one for myself.About 20 people____that they were coming.I don't have a lot of money,but I spent more than____in the $1 store to buy decorations and plates.I had a tiny____in order to ford all of them.

I sat,I____,and,although all of my “friends” had said they were coming,no one____!The celebration was supposed to____at 12 noon.Here it was,4:00 pm,and____,no one was here.The ice-cream cake was____,the food on the barbecue was burnt beyond____.I tried really hard not to cry.

I decided to sit back and relax,reflecting on the____moments that I did have.All of a sudden,I heard a roar of an engine,just outside my front door.Mr.Kenny,apparently,did____he could to show up.I cried in his____,sawing,"I'm not worth anything!"He wiped away my tears,____me tight,and said the____words:"I will always be your friend!" The dark clouds in my mind cleared away at once.

He had had so many challenges and difficulties over his past couple of weeks,but he____to come.As we sat outside under a blanket of clear blue skies,laughing and____,I felt that I was____.He appeared just before I wanted to give up on this____world.

Yes,life is beautiful.Yes,there are some people who love each other for over 50 years.____ there are some of us who do not have those luxuries(福气).However,never give up the____maybe it is round the comer.

1.A. applied B. pretended C. confirmed D. required

2.A. last B. usual C. first D. forever

3.A. budget B. plan C. destination D. purpose

4.A. doubted B. hesitated C. intended D. waited

5.A. hanged out B. turned around C. checked in D. showed up

6.A. open B. start C. launch D. close

7.A. still B. also C. ever D. too

8.A. freezing B. melting C. hardening D. breaking

9.A. imagination B. control C. recognition D. repair

10.A. wonderful B. terrible C. different D. similar

11.A. anything B. nothing C. something D. everything

12.A. clothes B. aims C. shoulders D. hands

13.A. patted B. dragged C. struck D. held

14.A. magical B. practical C. familiar D. thoughtful

15.A. expected B. managed C. promised D. meant

16.A. thinking B. talking C. fighting D. crying

17.A. betrayed B. forgotten C. respected D. blessed

18.A. risky B. kind C. mean D. bright

19.A. though B. while C. when D. because

20.A. chance B. dream C. hope D. idea

While beach vacations may be a great way to take your mind off work, lakes surrounded by mountains make for an even grander experience. If you are looking for come peace on your vacation, we have some recommendations for you in the Caucasus (高加索).

Lake Sevan

Lake Sevan is situated in the central part of Armenia, in the Gegharkumk province. It is the largest lake in Armenia, located 6,200ft above sea level. Along the lake shore, there are various accommodations such as resorts and hotels with plenty of activities to partake m such as windsurfing, swimming and sunbathing. While there, do not forget to visit one of the famous cultural monuments, the Sevanavank Monastery, and it offers a great view of the lake as well.

Lake Paravani

Lake Paravani, located at 6,801ft above sea level, is in the south of Georgia, near the Javakheti plateau. At this level, altitude sickness can occur and it is a good idea to be prepared to adapt to it properly, or bring medication for altitude sickness. Being a volcanic lake makes for a more interesting: experience. The lake is best known for fishing. Do not come home during the winter months when the lake freezes.

Lake Cildir

Lake Cildir is located in the Ardahan province. East Turkey, near the borders of Georgia and Armenia. It is the second largest freshwater lake of Eastern Turkey, and many tourists are not aware of this beautiful attraction. Lake Cildir is surrounded by mountains of the Caucasus. The lake freezes during late November. If the winter is not extremely cold, you can try some lake activities like ice skating and ice fishing.

Lake Van

Lake Van is the must visit of all lakes in this list. The largest lake in Turkey. Lake Van is located on the eastern shore of Turkey and is also the most accessible lake here. It’s situated at 5,380ft above sea level, and unique to lakes around the world, the water is high in salt content.

1.If you want to visit some historic sites during your travel by a lake, you can go to .

A. Lake Cildir B. Lake Parvani

C. Lake Sevan D. Lake Van

2.What is special about Lake Van?

A. Its water is high in salt. B. It is a volcanic lake.

C. It is globally the latest lake. D. It is surrounded by mountains.

3.What challenge are travelers most likely to face while visiting Lake Paravani?

A. Lack of medicine. B. Volcano eruptions.

C. Altitude sickness. D. Low temperature all the year.

We took a rare family road trip to the Adirondacks in late August,and it was as refreshing and exhausting as family vacations tend to be.Toward the end of our long drive home, even the kids were leaning forward in their seats urging my lead foot on.At that point in a road trip,even sixty-five miles per hour feels slow. We have become numb to our speed and numb to the road signs flashing by.

My family lives on the edge of Lancaster County. Only thirty miles from home,I hit the brakes,and we began to roll,slowly,behind a horse-drawn carriage. We began to open our eyes again.We saw familiar green hills and the farm with the best watermelons. I rolled down the windows, and we breathed again.Just-cut hay and a barn full of dairy cattle.

At five miles per hour,you remember what you forget at sixty-five.You are thinking about a place,even when you are moving from place to place.

I am a placemaker. A homemaker, too. I am a mother of a young kid at home,and also a writer and a gardener.But,for me,those roles are wrapped up with the one big thing I want to do with the rest of my life:I want to cultivate a place and share it with others.

The place I make with my family is a red-brick farmhouse built in l880. It has quite a few nineteenth-century bedrooms and a few acres of land,and we love nothing more than to fill them with neighbors and friends. We grow vegetables and flowers,keep a baker’s dozen of egg—laying chickens,and,since we moved in three years ago,we have planted many,many trees.

Living with my life’s purpose does not allow for much travel. I need to be here,feeding the chickens and watering the tomatoes. Any extra in the budget,and we spend it on trees.

But I learned something at the end of our family road trip.Travel can help me in the task of caring for my own place.When I slow down and pay attention to the road between here and there,travel tells me the connections between my place and all the other places.

1.What does the author try to express in the first paragraph?

A. The tiredness of her past family life.

B. Her disappointment at the family road trip.

C. The family’s eagerness to return home.

D. Kids’excitement at driving fast on the road.

2.Why did the author slow her car some miles from her home?

A. Because she made a way for a horse-drawn carriage.

B. Because she enjoyed the scenery along the road.

C. Because she needed a break after the long drive.

D. Because she wanted to get rid of a fast-paced life.

3.The underlined word“placemaker”in the 4th paragraph refers to someone who_______ .

A. devotes most of his energy and time to building his house

B. is ready to help anyone in need in the community

C. makes a creative design for others’houses

D. is good at cultivating a place and sharing it with others

4.What can be the best title of the passage?

A. On the Way Home B. Never Travel again

C. Escape from a Family Life D. Life on the Farm

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