A

(2016·浙江)A scientist working at her lab bench and a six-month-old baby playing with his food might seem to have little in common. After all, the scientist is engaged in serious research to uncover the very nature of the physical world, and the baby is, well, just playing…right? Perhaps, but some developmental psychologists(心理学家) have argued that this "play" is more like a scientific investigation than one might think.

Take a closer look at the baby playing at the table. Each time the bowl of rice is pushed over the table edge, it falls to the ground — and, in the process, it brings out important evidence about how physical objects interact (相互作用): bowls of rice do not float in mid-air, but require support to remain stable. It is likely that babies are not born knowing this basic fact of the universe; nor are they ever clearly taught it. Instead, babies may form an understanding of object support through repeated experiments and then build on this knowledge to learn even more about how objects interact. Though their ranges and tools differ, the baby’s investigation and the scientist’s experiment appear to share the same aim(to learn about the natural world), overall approach (gathering direct evidence from the world), and logic (are my observations what I expected?).

Some psychologists suggest that young children learn about more than just the physical world in this way—that they investigate human psychology and the rules of language using similar means. For example, it may only be through repeated experiments, evidence gathering, and finally overturning a theory, that a baby will come to accept the idea that other people can have different views and desires from what he or she has, for example, unlike the child, Mommy actually doesn’t like Dove chocolate.

Viewing childhood development as a scientific investigation throws light on how children learn, but it also offers an inspiring look at science and scientists. Why do young children and scientists seem to be so much alike? Psychologists have suggested that science as an effort—the desire to explore, explain, and understand our world — is simply something that comes from our babyhood. Perhaps evolution (进化) provided human babies with curiosity and a natural drive to explain their worlds, and adult scientists simply make use of the same drive that served them as children. The same cognitive (认知的) systems that make young children feel good about figuring something out may have been adopted by adult scientists. As some psychologists put it," It is not that children are little scientists but that scientists are big children."

1.According to some developmental psychologists, .

A. a baby’s play is nothing more than a game

B. scientific research into babies’ games is possible

C. the nature of babies’ play has been thoroughly investigated

D. a baby’s play is somehow similar to a scientist’s experiment

2.We learn from Paragraph 2 that .

A. scientists and babies seem to observe the world differently

B. scientists and babies often interact with each other

C. babies are born with the knowledge of object support

D. babies seem to collect evidence just as scientists do

3.Children may learn the rules of language by .

A. exploring the physical world B. investigating human psychology

C. repeating their own experiments D. observing their parents’ behaviors

4.What is the main idea of the last paragraph?

A. The world may be more clearly explained through children’s play.

B. Studying babies’ play may lead to a better understanding of science.

C. Children may have greater ability to figure out things than scientists.

D. One’s drive for scientific research may become stronger as he grows.

5. What is the author’s tone when he discusses the connection between scientists’ research and babies’ play?

A. Convincing. B. Confused.

C. Confident. D. Cautious.

B

(2017·浙江)Benjamin West, the father of American painting, showed his talent for art when he was only six years of age. But he did not know about brushes before a visitor told him he needed one. In those days, a brush was made from camel’s hair. There were no camels nearby. Benjamin decided that cat hair would work instead. He cut some fur from the family cat to make a brush.

The brush did not last long. Soon Benjamin needed more fur. Before long, the cat began to look ragged (蓬乱). His father said that the cat must be sick. Benjamin was forced to admit what he had been doing.

The cat’s lot was about to improve. That year, one of Benjamin’s cousins, Mr. Pennington, came to visit. He was impressed with Benjamin’s drawings. When he went home, he sent Benjamin a box of paint and some brushes. He also sent six engravings(版画) by an artist. These were the first pictures and first real paint and brushes Benjamin had ever seen. In 1747, when Benjamin was nine years old, Mr. Pennington returned for another visit. He was amazed at what Benjamin had done with his gift. He asked Benjamin’s parents if he might take the boy to Philadelphia for a visit.

In the city, Mr. Pennington gave Benjamin materials for creating oil paintings. The boy began a landscape(风景) painting. William Williams, a well-known painter, came to see him work. Williams was impressed with Benjamin and gave him two classic books on painting to take home. The books were long and dull. Benjamin could read only a little, having been a poor student. But he later said,"Those two books were my companions by day, and under my pillow at night."While it is likely that he understood very little of the books, they were his introduction to classical paintings. The nine-year-old boy decided then that he would be an artist.

1.What is the text mainly about?

A. Benjamin’s visit to Philadelphia.

B. Williams’ influence on Benjamin.

C. The beginning of Benjamin’s life as an artist.

D. The friendship between Benjamin and Pennington.

2. What does the underlined sentence in paragraph 3 suggest?

A. The cat would be closely watched.

B. The cat would get some medical care.

C. Benjamin would leave his home shortly.

D. Benjamin would have real brushes soon.

3.What did Pennington do to help Benjamin develop his talent?

A. He took him to see painting exhibitions.

B. He provided him with painting materials.

C. He sent him to a school in Philadelphia.

D. He taught him how to make engravings.

4. Williams’ two books helped Benjamin to ________.

A. master the use of paints

B. appreciate landscape paintings

C. get to know other painters

D. make up his mind to be a painter

七选五型阅读理解

根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

Controlling Anger

Becoming angry is something beyond the control of people 1 Becoming angry can do a lot of damages, both mental and physical. However, there are methods for discovering how to control anger and not suffer later.

2 The moment you feel there are chances of you becoming angry, get away from those circumstances. In fact, there can be no better a judge than you, for discovering what it is or who it is that makes you become angry, and then at that moment choose to think about something else that can lighten your feelings.

●Keep a check on your breathing. 3 By controlling the process of breathing, you can actually slow down your anger greatly. You can count till the number three as you breathe in, hold it for 3 seconds and again count till three while breathing out. You have to concentrate on the count as you do this and repeat for as many times as is required.

4 For example, if you're experiencing road anger while driving, you can choose to tell yourself that the person who overtook you by a vehicle was in a hurry as a result of some emergency and appreciate the fact that nothing major had happened to your car. Repeat this form of self talk to yourself every time you are in the middle of such an angry situation.

●Look for a support in other people. 5 It needs to be clear right at the beginning as to why you are discussing your concerns with that individual. Let the other individual know what you want from the other person. After you're done with your part of discussing about the circumstances, chances are that you'll feel much better than before.

A. Talk to yourself positively.

B. Come to a stop as soon as you are angry.

C. Try to see the situation in a different light.

D. You can also ask for help from the one you rely on.

E. What you can do when you become angry is to breathe deeply.

F. In fact, almost all people at one point of time or the other become angry.

G. You can imagine going to a place you consider to be calming as well as relaxing.

Passage1(2017·全国新课标I,A)

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Pacific Science Center

231

★★☆☆☆

5分钟

Pacific Science Center Guide

◆Visit Pacific Science Center’s Store

Don’t forget to stop by Pacific Science Center’s Store while you are here to pick up a wonderful science activity or souvenir to remember your visit. The store is located(位于) upstairs in Building 3 right next to the Laser Dome.

◆Hungry?

Our exhibits will feed your mind, but what about your body? Our café offers a complete menu of lunch and snack options, in addition to seasonal specials. The café is located upstairs in Building 1 and is open daily until one hour Pacific Science Center closes.

◆Rental Information

Lockers are available to store any belongs during your visit. The lockers are located in Building 1 near the Information Desk and in Building 3. Pushchairs and wheelchairs are available to rent at the Information Desk and Denny Way entrance. ID required.

◆Support Pacific Science Center

Since 1962, Pacific Science Center has been inspiring a passion(热情) for discovery and lifelong learning in science, math and technology. Today, Pacific Science Center serves more than 1.3 million people a year and brings inquiry-based science education to classrooms and community events all over Washington State. It’s an amazing accomplishment and one we cannot achieve without generous support from individuals, corporations, and other social organizations. Visit pacificsciencecenter.org to find various ways you can support Pacific Science Center.

1.Where can you buy a souvenir at Pacific Science Center?

A. In Building 1.

B. In Building 3.

C. At the Laser Dome.

D. At the Denny Way entrance.

2.What does Pacific Science Center do for schools?

A. Train science teachers.

B. Distribute science books.

C. Inspire scientific research.

D. Take science to the classroom.

3.What is the purpose of the last part of the text?

A. To encourage donations.

B. To advertise coming events.

C. To introduce special exhibits.

D. To tell about the Center’s history.

Passage2(2017·全国新课标II,A)

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友爱

273

★★☆☆☆

6分钟

In the coming months, we are bringing together artists from all over the globe, to enjoy speaking Shakespeare’s plays in their own language, in our globe, within the architecture Shakespeare wrote for. please come and join us.

National Theatre Of China Beijing|Chinese

This great occasion(盛会) will be the national Theatre of China’s first visit to the UK. The company’s productions show the new face of 21st century Chinese theatre. This production of Shakespeare’s Richard III will be directed by the National’s Associate Director, Wang Xiaoying.

Date &Time: Saturday 28 April,2.30pm&Sunday 29 April,1.30pm&6.30pm

Marjanishvili Theatre Tbilisi |Georgian

One of the most famous theatres in Georgia, the Marjanishvili, founded in 1928,appears regularly at theatre festivals all over the world. This new production of As You Like It is helmed(指导)by the company’s Artistic Director Levan Tsuladze.

Date & Time : Friday 18May,2.30pm&Saturday 19May,7.30pm

Deafinitely Theatre London | British Sign Language (BSL)

By translating the rich and humourous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL, Deafinitely Theatre creates a new interpretation of Shakespeare’s comedy and aims to build a bridge between deaf and hearing worlds by performing to both groups as one audience.

Date&Time: Tueaday 22 May,2.30pm&Wednesday 23 May,7.30pm

Habima National Theatre Tel Aviv| Hebrew

The Habima is the centre of Hebrew-language theatre worldwide, Founded in Moscow after the 1905 revolution, the company eventually settled in Tel Aviv in the late 1920s,Since 1958,they have been recognized as the national theatre of Israel. This production of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice marks their first visit to the UK.

Date &Time: Monday 28May,7.30&Tuesday 29 May,7.30pm

1.which play will be performed by the National Theatre of China?

A. Richard Ⅲ. B. Lover’s Labour’s Lost.

C.As You Like It. D. The merchant of Venice.

2.What is special about Deafinnitely Theatre?

A. It has two groups of actors.

B. It is the leading theatre in London.

C. It performs plays in BSL.

D. It is good at producing comedies.

3.When can you see a play in Hebrew?

A. On Saturday 28Apil. B. On Sunday 29 April.

C. On Tuesday 22 May. D. On Tuesday 29 May.

ssage3(2016·全国新课标I,C )

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莎士比亚的戏剧被翻译成几个国家的语言,并将在这些国家的大剧院上映

258

★★☆☆☆

5分钟

I am peter Hodes ,a volunteer stem courier. Since March 2012, I’ve done 89 trips of those , 51 have been abroad, I have 42 hours to carry stem cells(干细胞)in my little box because I’ve got two ice packs and that’s how long they last, in all, from the time the stem cells are harvested from a donor(捐献者) to the time they can be implanted in the patient, we’ve got 72 hours at most, So I am always conscious of time.

I had one trip last year where I was caught by a hurricane in America. I picked up the stem cells in Providence, Rhode Island, and was meant to fly to Washington then back to London. But when I arrived at the check-in desk at Providence, the lady on the desk said: "Well, I’m really sorry, I’ve got some bad news for you-there are no fights from Washington." So I took my box and put it on the desk and I said: "In this box are some stem cells that are urgently needed for a patient-please, please, you’ve got to get me back to the United Kingdom." She just dropped everything. She arranged for a flight on a small plane to be held for mere-routed(改道)me through Newark and got me back to the UK even earlier than originally scheduled.

For this courier job, you’re consciously aware than that box you’re got something that is potentially going to save somebody’s life.

1.Which of the following can replace the underlined word "courier" in Paragraph17

A. provider B. delivery man

C. collector D. medical doctor

2.Why does Peter have to complete his trip within 42hours?

A. He cannot stay away from his job too long.

B. The donor can only wait for that long.

C. The operation needs hat very much.

D. The ice won’t last any longer.

3.Which flight did the woman put Peter on first?

A. To London B. To Newark

C. To Providence D. To Washington

Passage4(2016·天津,B)

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父与子

405

★★★☆☆

9分钟

Every man wants his son to be somewhat of a clone, not in features but in footsteps. As he grows you also age, and your ambitions become more unachievable. You begin to realize that your boy, in your footsteps, could probably accomplish what you hoped for. But footsteps can be muddied and they can go off in different directions.

My son Jody has hated school since day one in kindergarten. Science projects waited until the last moment. Book reports weren’t written until the final threat.

I’ve been a newspaperman all my adult life. My daughter is a university graduate working toward her master’s degree in English. But Jody? When he entered the tenth grade he became a "vo-tech" student(技校学生). They’re called "motorheads" by the rest of the student body.

When a secretary in my office first called him "motorhead", I was shocked. "Hey, he’s a good kid," I wanted to say. "And smart, really."

I learned later that motorheads are, indeed, different. They usually have dirty hands and wear dirty work clothes. And they don’t often make school honor rolls(光荣榜).

But being the parent of a motorhead is itself an experience in education. We who labor in clean shirts in offices don’t have the abilities that motorheads have. I began to learn this when I had my car crashed. The cost to repair it was estimated at $800. "Hey, I can fix it," said Jody. I doubted it , but let him go ahead, for I had nothing to lose.

My son ,with other motorheads, fixed the car. They got parts(零件)from ajunkyard, non-toasting toaster have been fixed. Neighbours and co-workers trust their car repair to him.

Since that first repair job, a broken air-conditioner, a non-functioning washer and a non-toasting toaster have been fixed. Neighbors and co-workers trust their car repairs to him.

These kids are happiest when doing repairs. They joke and laugh and are living in their own relaxed world. And their minds are bright despite their dirty hands and clothes.

I have learned a lot from my motorhead: publishers need printers, engineers need mechanics, and architects need builders. Most important, I have learned that fathers don’t need clones in footsteps or anywhere else.

My son may never make the school honor roll. But he made mine.

【题文1】What used to be the author’s hope for his son?

A.To avoid becoming his clone.

B.To resemble him in appearance.

C.To develop in a different direction.

D.To reach the author’s unachieved goals.

【题文2】 What can we learn about the author’s children?

A.His daughter does better in school.

B.His daughter has got a master’s degree.

C.His son tried hard to finish homework.

D.His son couldn’t write his book reports.

【题文3】The author let his son repair the car because he believed that_______.

A . His son had the ability to fix it.

B. it would save him much time.

C. it wouldn’t cause him any more loss

D. other motorheads would come to help.

【题文4】 In the author’s eyes, motorheads are _______.

A. tidy and hardworking B. cheerful and smart

C. lazy but bright D. relaxed but rude

【题文5】What did the author realize in the end?

A. It is unwise to expect your child to follow your path.

B. It is important for one to make the honor roll.

C. Architects play a more important role than builders.

D. Motorheads have greater ability than office workers.

Passage1(2017届山西运城市高三模拟考试)

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一次旅行的详细安排

268

★★☆☆☆

One Day Fly-Fly Rock Art Tour

Operator: Adventure North Australia Destination: Cooktown Departing: Cairns

Prices(AUD): Adults: $ 549.00 Child: $ 390.00

Family(2 adults and 2 children): $ 1,669.00

Tour Description

A truly unique experience, voted as one of Australia’s Must-Do-Experiences. Treat yourself to an amazing day out with Aboriginal Elder Willie Gordon.

Depart Cairns Domestic Airport for the Skytrain Flight to Cooktown. Flight departs Cairns at 6:45 a.m.

Enjoy a 45-minute flight with wonderful views from Cairns to Cooktown as you fly along the coast between the World Heritage rainforest and the Great Barrier Reef. On arrival in Cooktown you’ll be met by Willie Gordon, the traditional storyteller of the Nugal-warra trible.

Willie Gordon takes guests to his ancestral rock art sites, set high in the hills above Hope Vale, outside Cooktown. Here he shares the stories behind the art. He’ll explain how the paintings speak of the most basic and important quality of life and the knowledge of his people.

The tour takes you through an impressive view of six rock art sites, including an ancestral Birth Cave and the Reconciliation Cave. It includes a 30-minute bush walk on generally easy terrian(地形). (PS: Covered closed-on shoes must be worn.)

Return to Cooktown at 1:15 p.m. where Willie will take you to the Nature Power House Museum, Cooktown’s Visitor Information Centre. Lunch is included at the Verhandah Cafe.

The rest of the afternoon is free to explore historical Cooktown before your transfer to Cooktown airport and return flight to Cairns. Flight arrives at Cairns Domestic Airport at 6:40 p.m. Own arrangements on arrival in Cairns.

1.Tourists will go to_________ after viewing the rock art.

A. the World Heritage Rain-forest

B. the Great Barrier Reef

C. the Nature Power House Museum

D. the Reconciliation Cave

2. From the passage, we know that Willie Gordon______.

A. acts as the guide of the tour.

B. is the owner of the Verhandah Cafe.

C. works in the Nature Power House Museum.

D. is the manager of Adventure North Australia.

3.Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE according to the text?

A. Tourists arrive in Cooktown by air

B. The whole tour lasts about twelve hours.

C. Tourists can visit historical Cooktown free of charge in the afternoon.

D.A couple taking the tour with their three children will pay at least $2,059.

4.The tour is designed to let the tourists__________.

A. learn about the custom

B. involve themselves in rock music

C. experience the local lifestyle

D. enjoy the ancient art

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