Winter is coming, and some parts of the world are already covered with deep snow. The best way to warm those cold hands is a cup of hot sweet chocolate. Hot chocolate has been used for many years to treat diseases and fight bad moods. It’s known as a special healthy drink from the 16th to 19th centuries, and sometimes was taken us a medicine. Nowadays people don’t consider hot chocolate as a medicine, but drink even more than ever! There are plenty of tasty and healthy hot chocolate recipes (烹饪法) you can try to enjoy the following health benefits of drinking hot chocolate.

It improves your brain power

The study shows that drinking hot chocolate can help improve your brain power and your brain health. The flavonoids (类黄酮) in hot chocolate increase the blood flow and oxygen to your brain, helping you think better. If you want to improve your memory, try drinking two cups of hot chocolate a day. Not only will you improve your memory, but your mood as well. Just make sure you don’t use too much sugar in your hot chocolate.

It improves your mood

Chocolate, including hot chocolate, is well-known mood booster. This tasty drink helps fight stress, anxiety, and depression. But the problem is, hot chocolate may contain high amounts of sugar. Consider making sugar-free hot chocolate to get all its mood-improving properties (特性).

It can help you lose weight

If you are trying to drop a few pounds, drinking hot chocolate can help you achieve your weight loss goal. When made correctly, hot chocolate is a delicious and low calorie drink that you can enjoy every time you have chocolate desire. Besides, drinking a cup of low calorie hot chocolate helps prevent the intake of high-calorie and sugar foods like cakes.

Now that you’re aware of some of the best health benefits of drinking chocolate, what are you waiting for? Rush into your kitchen and make this fantastic winter drink.

1.Hot chocolate is popular in winter because .

A. it can make your cold hands warm

B. it has been used for many years

C. it was used to treat kinds of illnesses

D. it is regarded as the healthiest drink

2.In the passage the author mainly talks about .

A. different hot chocolate recipes

B. materials used to make hot chocolate

C. side effects from drinking chocolate

D. benefits of drinking hot chocolate

3.It can be inferred from the passage that .

A. hot chocolate is the only way to improve mood

B. most people can be addicted to chocolate

C. remember never to have sugar in drink

D. food in low calorie makes you healthy

The repairman told me, “No charge, Professor Pan!” We’re friends.

“I’d rather pay,’’ I replied. “If it’s free, I can’t afford it!”

Chinese often refuse payment for professional services .insisting, “We’re friends now!” But then they show up later to ask me to tutor them in English,or get them into an American university, and I wish I’d have just paid the 30 yuan I owed them in the first place!

According to the Americans, “There is no free lunch.”, means that there’s a price for everything. And I’m always looking around to figure out what this means. Many of our neighbours have given us fruit or flowers or costly teas, never asking anything in return. For years, a bicycle repairman has repeatedly refused to let me pay him. “Wait until you have something major to fix!” he insists.

I mentioned to a peasant friend that I wished I had a stone mill to grind (磨) flour for bread. A month later he showed up with a beautiful mill that he and his uncle in the countryside had carved from a solid block of stone.

Chinese generosity is a real education for Americans like me, who would rather avoid social entanglements (纠纷) and just hand over the money. But cash can’t compensate (补偿) for the greatest gift—friendship.

When an American saw some of my friends sitting on bamboo stools under the trees, sipping (呷) tea, he said, “They must have nothing better to do.” “Actually,” I said, “they are professors, with plenty to do. But probably you are right in saying that, at this moment, they have nothing better to do. And neither do I!”

And I joined the group. When chatting about tea and Chinese cooking and how much my boys have grown since we arrived, one man said, “They were pocket-sized when you came here. Now they’re taller than you. How time flies !.”

How life flies. And Chinese are smart enough to share what they know they cannot keep. They freely give off their time, never too busy to help a friend. And they are teaching me, slowly, to both give and receive. So the next time someone says, “No charge. We’re friends!” I will thank them heartily. But if they show up later asking me to tutor them in English, I’ll make sure they tutor my son in Chinese as well, because there’s still no free lunch.

1.Why did the author insist paying the repairman while he was offered free repairs?

A. Because he was an upright man.

B. Because he didn’t know the repair man

C. Because he thought it natural to pay for other’s service.

D. Because he didn’t want to help others in return.

2.Generally, the author thinks that .

A. Chinese are generous always ready to help their friends

B. Chinese are good at exchange of equal values

C. Chinese are free enough to drink and chat with their friends

D. Chinese are helpful but don’t treasure time

3.The best title for the passage should be “

A. Still No Free lunch

B. A Good Lesson From Chinese

C. True Help or Not

D. Learn to Both Give And Receive

4.Which of the following is TRUE?

A. All the Chinese that once gave the author help have asked him to tutor them in English

B. When a peasant knew the author needed a mill, he made one for the author himself

C. The author thinks that Chinese are wise enough to enjoy the limited life

D. The author thinks little of the Chinese way of life.

Getting rid of dirt, in the opinion of most people, is a good thing. However, there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt.

In the early 16thcentury, people thought that dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease, as medical opinion had it that washing off dirt with hot water could open up the skin and let ills in. A particular danger was thought to lie in public baths. By 1538, the French king had closed the bath houses in his kingdom. So did the king of England in 1546. Thus began a long time when the rich and the poor in Europe lived with dirt in a friendly way. Henry IV, King of France, was famously dirty. Upon learning that a nobleman had taken a bath, the king ordered that, to avoid the attack of disease, the nobleman should not go out.

Though the belief in the merit of dirt was long-lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since the 18thcentury. Scientifically speaking, cleaning away dirt is good to health. Clean water supply and hand washing are practical means of preventing disease. Yet, it seems that standards of cleanliness have moved beyond science since World War Ⅱ. Advertisements repeatedly sell the idea; clothes need to be whiter than white, cloths ever softer, surfaces to shine. Has the hate for dirt, however, gone too far?

Attitudes to dirt still differ hugely nowadays. Many first-time parents nervously try to warn their children off touching dirt, which might be responsible for the spread of disease. On the contrary, Mary Ruebush, an American immunologist(免疫学家),encourages children to play in the dirt to build up a strong immune system. And the latter position is gaining some ground.

1.The kings of France and England in the 16thcentury closed bath houses because .

A. they lived healthily in a dirty environment.

B. they thought bath houses were to dirty to stay in

C. they believed disease could be spread in public baths

D. they considered bathing as the cause of skin disease

2.Which of the following best describes Henry IV’s attitude to bathing?

A. Afraid. B. Curious.

C. Approving. D. Uninterested.

3.How does the passage mainly develop?

A. By providing examples.

B. By making comparisons.

C. By following the order of time.

D. By following the order of importance.

4.What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?

A. To stress the role of dirt.

B. To introduce the history of dirt.

C. To call attention to the danger of dirt.

D. To present the change of views on dirt.

Some people are so rude!

Who sends an e-mail or a text message that just says “Thank you”? Who leaves a voice mail message rather than texts you? Who asks for a fact easily found on Google? Don’t these people realize that they’re wasting your time?

Maybe I’m the rude one for not appreciating life’s little politeness. But many social agreed standards just don’t make sense to people drowning in digital communication.

In texts, you don’t have to declare who you are or even say hello; E-mail, too, is slower than a text; Voice mail is a now impolite way of trying to connect.

My father learned this lesson after leaving me a dozen voice mail messages, none of which I listened to. Exasperated, he called my sister to express his dissatisfaction that I never returned his phone calls. “Why are you leaving him voice mails?” my sister asked. “Just text him.”

In the age of the smartphone, there is no reason to ask once-acceptable questions about: the weather forecast, a business’s phone number, or directions to a house, a restaurant, which can be easily found on Google Maps. But people still ask these things. And when you answer, they respond with a thank-you e-mail.

How to handle these differing standards? Easy: Consider your audience. Some people, especially older ones, appreciate a thank-you message. Others, like me, want no reply.

The anthropologist (人类学家) Margaret Mead once said that in traditional societies, the young learn from the old. But in modem societies, the old can also learn from the young. Here’s hoping that politeness never goes out of fashion but that time-wasting forms of communication do.

1.What does the underlined word “exasperated” mean in the fifth paragraph?

A. Worried. B. Annoyed.

C. Surprised. D. Tired.

2.Why didn’t the writer reply to his father?

A. He didn’t want to talk with his father.

B. He liked text messages better.

C. He didn’t receive any voice mail messages.

D. He enjoyed checking his voice mails.

3.Which of the following does the writer agree to?

A. Dealing with voice mail should vary with each individual.

B. Declaring who they are or saying hello in texts is necessary

C. People needn’t learn from one another in traditional societies.

D. People needn’t turn to Google for help when in trouble.

4.What’s the best title of this passage?

A. Nowadays: what means should we use in communication

B. Nowadays: do you like leaving others a voice message

C. Nowadays: what should we do with text messages

D. Nowadays: do you need a thank-you message

Ways to be safe in school

School safety issues involve more than violence. It may also address such concern as natural disasters, illness, fire and local emergencies. 1.

Have a plan

Teachers and students should know where to go and what to do in case of a school security situation. 2. Schools can also post guidelines in each classroom with simple pictures pointing out emergency exits, fire extinguishers (灭火器), and other emergency equipment.

Screen visitors

3. Give school visitors temporary badges (证章) to identify them. Install cameras at all entrances and restrict access as much as possible. Ask teachers and hall monitors to stop anyone in the halls without appropriate identification.

Panic buttons

Provide teachers with panic button in classroom so they can ask for help immediately. Provide clear and brief instructions about use and immediate response when .started. 4.

Establish a hotline

Establish a hotline so students can report crimes and threats anonymously (匿名地). Post the number in obvious locations so students can see it on a regular basis. 5. Establish a student disciplinary committee, and develop peer counseling programs for newcomers and victims of bullying (欺负).

A. Teachers and students should be certain that immediate help will arrive.

B. Visitors are not allowed to enter schools.

C. Students may report crimes and threats more quickly without being identified.

D. Require that all visitors enter the security office and explain why they are there.

E. It is said that about 16,000 students die in school accidents every year in China.

F. So what can we do to make the school a safer place?

G. Just as schools practice fire drills, they can conduct safety drills.

I am a social worker. I wanted to tell everyone about my very dear friend who passed away a few months ago.

I met him many years ago while doing my internship (实习) in the county prison. He was ______ a program he had designed to help prisoners with drug and alcohol problems. He was always ______ new ways to bring hope and help to these men and their ______.

One of his favorite ______ was the Toy Drive he would run every Christmas for the children of the prisoners. He did this for twenty years ______ his sudden death. As last Christmas ______, I decided that this tradition had to be ______, for the children as well as the ______ of my friend.

But the file where he kept the names of the people who had helped him over the years had gone ______. I had to start anew (重新) and with very little ______! I started making phones calls, explaining about the project and my ______. I prayed every night that the event would, ______, be worthy of my friend.

To my great ______, individuals, churches and businesses began to come on board and, ______, I had enough toys to give to all the children of the prisoners with some left over for the local community ______!

When Christmas Eve finally arrived, I felt very happy, thinking I had done all I could do and reflecting on what a (n) ______ it had been for me. I was bagging up the remaining toys ______ if there was anyone left who might like them. Then my phone rang.

It was my daughter. She ______ to explain about a woman she knew in Kentucky who had five children, one seriously ill, no husband, no heating in the home, no toys! Oh-how could we not?

My daughter and I drove all night, from New York to Kentucky, and those children woke up in a nice warm house with plenty of ______!

My friend’s ______ of kindness lived on that year, reaching all the way to Kentucky!

1.A. recording B. directing C. attending D. improving

2.A. coming up with B. catching up with C. keeping up with D. putting up with

3.A. company B. family C. group D. club

4.A. hobbies B. sports C. events D. games

5.A. until B. after C. because D. since

6.A. finished B. arrived C. followed D. approached

7.A. lived on B. lived out C. carried on D. carried out

8.A. pleasure B. memory C. benefit D. favor

9.A. extra B. hiding C. active D. missing

10.A. energy B. time C. pressure D. confidence

11.A. difficulties B. impression C. atmosphere D. importance

12.A. however B. though C. otherwise D. somehow

13.A. disappointment B. curiosity C. thought D. relief

14.A. absolutely B. eventually C. generally D. occasionally

15.A. as well B. at first C. in particular D. once more

16.A. pity B. honor C. burden D. discovery

17.A. wondering B. realizing C. predicting D. evaluating

18.A. came B. drove C. called D. returned

19.A. candies B. flowers C. chocolates D. toys

20.A. courage B. spirit C. position D. attention

1.He is d______ to the work of helping those who suffer from accidents and earthquakes.

2.Because of the ______ (极端地) cold weather, we were unable to plant the trees.

3.After g______ from university, he landed at a job he was interested in.

4.In the good care of the nurses, the boy is ______ (逐渐地) recovering from his heart operation.

5.As far as I’m c______, there’s no shortcut in our studies.

6.This project d______ to help the students in need just didn’t work out as planned.

7.Joe is proud and stubborn, never a______ he is wrong and always looking for someone else to blame.

8.With many problems a______ (出现), he didn’t know what to do next.

9.As tourism grows popular, Chinese are becoming particularly ______ (敏感) to improper behavior.

10.This hospital ______ ______ (附属) the medical college was destroyed in the flood.

11.Not only I but also Jane and Mary are tired of having the exam ______ ______ ______ (一个接一个).

12.He want to do something ______ ______ ______ (报答) the kindness that she offered him.

13.In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ______ ______ she could turn for help.

14.In school, we always arrange all kinds of activities ______ ______.(按时间表)

15.As is known to us all, theory ______ ______ ______(以….基础) practice and in turn serves practice.

16.While he is listening, he is busy ______ ______ (记录) what the teacher is saying.

17.______ ______ teach (决心) his daughter in English, he spent much money employing English teachers.

18.Tell your doctor with a detailed medical history ______ ______ (以致于) he can give you the accurate treatment.

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